Items tagged “cases”

5,336 results found
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Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are a heterogenous group of disorders that are characterized by excess infiltration of eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis: ...
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterized by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement. Mutations in more than 20 different genes have been reported that contribute to the disease's...
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Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation is characterized by a fracture of the radial head, dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint and rupture of the antebrachial interosseous membrane 3. Epidemiology As little as 20% of Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations are recognized at the time of initial...
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Eustachian tube dysfunction

Eustachian tube dysfunction refers to the failure of the Eustachian tube to open or close properly. Therefore, it encompasses a spectrum from patulous to obstructive pathophysiology. Eustachian tube dysfunction predisposes to chronic otitis media. Epidemiology Eustachian tube dysfunction is es...
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External petrosal nerve

The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers to the sympathetic plexus surrounding the middle meningeal artery, coursing extradurally laterally to the greater and lesser petrosal nerves on the petrous ridge's anterior surfac...
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
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Eye of the tiger sign (globus pallidus)

The eye of the tiger sign refers to symmetric bilateral abnormal low signal on T2-weighted MRI (due to abnormal accumulation of iron) in the globus pallidus with central high signal (due to gliosis and spongiosis). The eye of the tiger sign is most classically associated with pantothenate kinas...
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Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are performed primarily for the diagnosis and differentiation of facet syndrome and radicular pain syndrome, and are one of the spinal interventional procedures. They can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance, and cervical, thoracic or most ...
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Facial colliculus

The facial colliculus is an elevation on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is not formed by the facial nucleus, but by the fibers of the facial nerve arching backward around the abducent nucleus before turning forwards once more in the caudal pons. Related pathology A lesion involving the ...
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Facial nerve choristoma

Facial nerve choristomas are rare, being characterized by non-neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue. Facial nerve choristomas presumably can occur anywhere along the course of the facial nerve (CN VII), although the only cases reported are in the internal acoustic me...
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Venous vascular malformation of the facial nerve

Venous vascular malformations of the facial nerve, previously known as facial nerve hemangiomas, are rare benign vascular malformations of the facial nerve usually presenting as a facial nerve palsy, which can be rapid in onset mimicking a Bell palsy.  Terminology As they do not appear to have...
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Fallopian tube

The Fallopian tube (TA: tuba uterina 8), also known as the uterine tube or less commonly the oviduct, is a paired hollow tube that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the...
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Fatty nodal metaplasia

Fatty nodal metaplasia in the neck occurs as a result of chronic inflammation or radiotherapy 3. The normal fatty nodal hilum enlarges, such that the lymph node appears cystic. However, its center is of fatty density. There is no surrounding stranding, and the node otherwise looks normal. Diffe...
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Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter  in type 1 or low loop variety. As the right ur...
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Funnel trachea

Funnel trachea is a colloquialism for a congenital long-segment intrathoracic tracheal stenosis.  The diameter of the trachea immediately below the cricoid is normal, and becomes progressively more stenotic caudally. The posterior, membranous portion of the trachea may be partially or completel...
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Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterized by: familial adenopolyposis multiple osteomas: especially of the mandible, skull, and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumors of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall Other abnormalities include: supern...
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Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate or genicular ganglion contains fibers for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tym...
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Germinoma

Germinoma is a term that if unqualified, usually refers to a tumor of the brain but can also refer to similar tumors of other regions particularly the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma: see WHO classification of CNS tumors All these tumors share...
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Gestational sac

The gestational sac (GS) is the first sign of early pregnancy on ultrasound and can be seen with endovaginal ultrasound at approximately 3-5 weeks gestation when the mean sac diameter (MSD) would approximately measure 2-3 mm in diameter. A true gestational sac can be distinguished from a pseudo...
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Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: petrous apicitis abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...