Items tagged “cases”

5,341 results found
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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning or plumbism is a multisystem condition due to the way in which lead interferes with the function of virtually every organ system. Plumbism most severely manifests due to its devastating effects on the CNS, but it also has important deleterious consequences on the skeletal, renal, ...
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Lemierre syndrome

Lemierre syndrome (also known as postanginal septicemia) refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemio...
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Lemon sign

The lemon sign, noted on antenatal imaging, is one of the many notable fruit-inspired signs. It is a feature when there appears to be an indentation of the frontal bone (depicting that of a lemon). It is classically seen as a sign of a Chiari II malformation and also seen in the majority (90-98%...
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Lesser petrosal nerve

The lesser petrosal nerve carries preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland. It is considered a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve although it receives contributions from two further sources 3: tympanic plexus: glossopharyngeal nerve via Jacobson's nerve (main contribution) n...
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Linguine sign (breast)

Linguine sign, also known as the wavy line sign, is one of the imaging signs of intracapsular rupture of a breast implant 4. Pathology After implantation of a silicone or saline breast implant, a fibrous capsule (scar) forms around the implant shell. In an intracapsular rupture, the contents o...
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Lithopedion

Lithopedions, also known as stone babies, are a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1.5 to 1.8% of abdominal ectopic pregnancies 4. Pathology If the deceased fetus is too large to be re-absorbed...
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Low endplate signal on T1

Several conditions may give vertebral endplate T1 low signal on MRI. They include:   ankylosing spondylitis vertebral metastases disc infection haemodialysis
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Lymphocytic hypophysitis

Lymphocytic hypophysitis is an uncommon non-neoplastic inflammatory condition that affects the pituitary gland. It is closely related to other inflammatory conditions in the region, namely orbital pseudotumor and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Epidemiology Lymphocytic hypophysitis is seen most frequent...
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Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant condition which predisposes to a host of malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. It is considered the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer. Diagnosis requires evaluation...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple...
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterized by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
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Malignant vascular tumors

Malignant vascular tumors are rare, accounting for <1% of all sarcomas.  Pathology intermediate grade hemangioendothelioma Kaposi sarcoma high grade hemangiopericytoma angiosarcoma
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Malleus

The malleus (plural: mallei) is the most lateral middle ear ossicle, located between the tympanic membrane and the incus. Gross anatomy The malleus has a head, neck, and three distinct processes (manubrium (handle), anterior and lateral processes). The head is oval in shape, and articulates p...
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Mastitis

Mastitis (rare plural: mastitides) refers to inflammation of the breast parenchyma, of which there are a number of subtypes: acute mastitis puerperal mastitis: occurs usually from infection with Staphylococcus spp. during lactation non-puerperal mastitis: not related to lactation, and occurs ...
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Mean sac diameter

Mean sac diameter (MSD) is a sonographic measurement of the gestational sac, which is usually first seen at around 3 weeks after conception (5 weeks after the last menstrual period), when it measures 2-3 mm. Measurement MSD = (length + height + width)/3 Normal MSD (in mm) + 30 = days of pregn...
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Megalencephaly

Megalencephaly (MEG) is a disorder characterized by an abnormally large brain. It is primarily a proliferative disorder of embryonic origin. It may involve all or part of the cerebral hemispheres and can be bilateral or unilateral. It is often associated with polymicrogyria or agyria.  Terminol...
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Middle ear effusion

Middle ear effusions are frequent in children due to prominent adenoids and horizontal Eustachian tubes. These do not require imaging and can be treated expectantly / medically / surgically with tympanostomy tubes. Eustachian tube dysfunction is the accepted etiology, with resorption of air and ...
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Middle ear granulation tissue

Development of granulation tissue in the middle ear cavity is a generalized response to injury/inflammation, chronic otomastoiditis. It can either be typical or go down the pathway of becoming a cholesterol granuloma. Radiographic features Typical granulation tissue is common, more so than cho...
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Middle ear tumors

There are a range of middle ear tumors, which are more likely to be benign than malignant.  Pathology The three most common middle ear tumors are (not in any particular order as there are differences in the literature) 1-3:  glomus tympanicum paraganglioma congenital cholesteatoma middle ea...
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Middle lobe bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Middle lobe bronchiectasis may be seen in: non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections (e.g. MAC infection) middle lobe syndrome in children See also central bronchiectasis upper lobe bronchiectasis lower lobe b...