Items tagged “cases”

5,336 results found
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Middle lobe bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Middle lobe bronchiectasis may be seen in: non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections (e.g. MAC infection) middle lobe syndrome in children See also central bronchiectasis upper lobe bronchiectasis lower lobe b...
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Miscarriage

A miscarriage is the spontaneous termination of a pregnancy before 20 weeks of gestation. Fetal death after week 20 is termed fetal death in utero (FDIU). Terminology The term miscarriage is preferred by many over 'abortion' due to the use of the latter for therapeutic pregnancy termination, a...
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Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH), also known as lipoid dermatoarthritis, is a rare systemic disorder. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is not known, but the condition is considered to be very rare 11. It has a slight female preponderance 11. Associations There is a recognized associ...
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Muscles of the tongue

The muscles of the tongue are divided into 2 groups each comprising 4 muscles. They are classified as intrinsic (to the tongue) and extrinsic muscles. They allow for the complex movements of the tongue and are all innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) except one:​ intrinsic muscles of th...
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Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome, also known as congenital facial diplegia syndrome, is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the nuclei of the abducens (CN VI) and facial nerve (CN VII). Epidemiology Möbius syndrome is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1 case per 1...
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Nerve to stapedius

The nerve to stapedius arises from the facial nerve to supply the stapedius muscle. The branch is given off in the facial nerve's mastoid segment, as it passes posterior to the pyramidal process. Damage to this branch with resulting paralysis of stapedius leads to hypersensitivity to loud noise...
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Normal facial nerve enhancement on MRI

The normal facial nerve (CN VII) can demonstrate some enhancement post gadolinium, with the prevalence of which segments is highly variable depending on the MRI sequence 4-8. Enhancement may be asymmetric 4-6. It has been attributed to the circumneural facial arteriovenous plexus. Typical sites...
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Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
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Nuchal fold

The nuchal fold is a normal fold of skin seen at the back of the fetal neck during the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased thickness of the nuchal fold is a soft marker associated with multiple fetal anomalies, and is measured on a routine second trimester ultrasound.  Terminology It shou...
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Oculomotor nerve palsy

Oculomotor nerve palsies, or third nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Terminology If pupil is normal sized and reactive to lig...
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Odontogenic myxoma

Odontogenic myxomas are rare tumors that involve the mandible or maxilla and account for 3-6% of odontogenic tumors 2. Epidemiology Typically seen in the 2nd to 3rd decades of life (slightly earlier than ameloblastomas). They are usually not painful. Pathology Arises from mesenchymal odontog...
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Odontoma

Odontomas are one of the most common mandibular lesions encountered and the most common odontogenic tumors of the mandible. They account for up to two-thirds of all such tumors; the next most common are ameloblastomas, making up the majority of the remaining one-third. Epidemiology They can oc...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
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Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumor and non-specific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
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Otomastoiditis

Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
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Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids, SLE T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture, slipped capital femoral epiphysis 2) A: alcoho...
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Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome - i.e venous thoracic outlet syndrome. Epid...
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Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare pediatric tumors of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean age ...
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Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, also known as squamous cell papillomatosis, refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving respiratory epithelium, most commonly in the larynx (laryngeal papillomatosis) and less commonly the trachea and bronchial tree (tracheobronch...
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Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. Patau syndrome along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Edward syndrome (trisomy 18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days...