Items tagged “cases”

5,336 results found
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Penumbra sign (bones)

The penumbra sign represents a rim of vascularized granulation tissue around a bone abscess cavity that has a higher T1 signal intensity than the cavity itself 1.  It should not be confused with the ischemic penumbra of cerebral infarction.  The penumbra is isointense to muscle on T1, enhances...
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Piriformis syndrome

Piriformis syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy resulting in radicular pain radiating into the buttock and hamstrings. The entity is controversial as are the putative causes. Clinical presentation Sciatic pain reproduced on passive internal rotation/adduction of a flexed hip is considered ...
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Pituicytoma

Pituicytomas are rare indolent glial tumors presumably arising from pituicytes and only found in the neurohypophysis and infundibulum of the pituitary gland. Terminology There is much confusion in the literature as to what exactly a pituicytoma is, with the term used to synonymously particular...
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Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in a number of entities. Differential diagnosis tumors germinoma craniopharyngioma hypothalamic glioma pituitary lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumor of the pituitary (pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the...
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Pleural mouse

A pleural mouse (also known as a fibrin body), is a 1-2 cm mobile rounded clump of fibrin left over after resolution of a pleural effusion.
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Pneumatized dorsum sella

Pneumatization of the dorsum sella is not uncommon, but needs to be remembered as an unusual site of sinus disease, which otherwise may be mistaken for intracranial of pituitary disease.
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Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterized by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
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Polyposis syndromes

The polyposis syndromes are disorders in which more than 100 gastrointestinal polyps are present throughout the GI tract: hereditary hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) classic FAP Gardner syndrome  Turcot syndrome Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalc...
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Portal hypertensive gastroenterocolopathy

Portal hypertensive gastroenterocolopathy is a finding in portal hypertension, whereby chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels of the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (po...
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Posterosuperior impingement of the shoulder

Posterosuperior impingement, also known as internal impingement, is a relatively uncommon form of shoulder impingement primarily involving the infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. It occurs when the shoulder is abducted and externally rotated (ABER position). Clinical pr...
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Pregnancy-related osteonecrosis

Pregnancy-related osteonecrosis, also known as pregnancy-related avascular necrosis, is a common cause of femoral head osteonecrosis. Since the femoral head is deficient in blood supply, it is particularly vulnerable to osteonecrosis. Pathology The pathophysiology is thought to be due to venou...
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Pseudogestational sac

A pseudogestational sac, also known as a pseudosac or intra-cavitary fluid, is the concept that a small amount of intrauterine fluid in the setting of a positive pregnancy test and abdominal pain could be erroneously interpreted as a true gestational sac in ectopic pregnancy. The sign was origi...
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Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis refers to a narrowing of the pulmonary artery or pulmonary trunk can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery (pulmonary trunk) type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and periph...
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Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of gas within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics usually due to positive pressure ventilation. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants with respiratory distress syndro...
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Pulmonary edema grading

One pulmonary edema grading based on chest radiograph appearances and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is as follows: grade 0: normal chest radiograph, PCWP 8-12 mmHg grade 1: shows evidence of upper lobe diversion on a chest radiograph, PCWP 13-18 mmHg grade 2: shows interstitial ed...
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Pyometrium

Pyometrium refers to infection of the endometrial cavity with resulting expansion due to accumulated pus (pyometra). The postmenopausal demographic are most commonly affected due to the association with uterine malignancy. Pathology Causes endometritis / pelvic inflammatory disease uterine ...
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Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RMS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is shingles of the facial nerve. It is due to reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. Clinical presentation Ramsay Hunt syndrome classically presents with a triad of 3,4: otic pain facial nerve pal...
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Episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis syndrome

Episodic spontaneous hypothermia with hyperhidrosis syndrome (ESHH) is a rare syndrome characterized by periodic hypothermia and hyperhidrosis. This occurs in the absence of agenesis of the corpus callosum, thus differentiating it from Shapiro syndrome 1. Epidemiology Episodic spontaneous hypo...
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Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a fairly narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia organizing pneumonia (formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumon...
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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection.  Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1 poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentation...