Items tagged “cases”

3,942 results found

Koerner's septum

Koerner's septum is a thin bridge of bone which divides the petrous and squamous portion of the mastoid air cells at the level of the mastoid antrum. It is commonly eroded by middle ear cholesteatomas.

Medial calcaneal nerve

The medial calcaneal nerve is a terminal branch of the tibial nerve along with the medial and lateral plantar nerves in the tarsal tunnel at the level of the medial malleolus. It courses between the medial surface of the anterior calcaneus and abductor hallucis deep fascia, and has a sensory sup...

Terminal bronchiole

The terminal bronchioles are a continuation of the bronchi and are the last divisions of the conducting airways.   Gross Anatomy Terminal bronchioles, are confusingly named, as they not the final branches but rather the distal bronchioles that do not bear alveoli.  The first 19 divisions from ...


Neurosyphilis results from infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. The disease has a heterogeneous spectrum of early and late manifestations. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer ...


Syphilis is the result of infection with the gram negative spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. It results in a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with many systems that can potentially be involved, which are discussed separately.  Epidemiology Despite the discovery of penicillin...

Os centrale carpi

The os centrale carpi is an accessory ossicle of the wrist positioned dorsally between the scaphoid, the trapezoid and the capitate bones 1. As with most other accessory ossicles of the wrist, the os centrale carpi is a rare finding on imaging and is in the majority of cases an asymptomatic norm...

Os epilunate

The os epilunate is an accessory ossicle of the wrist that lies at the dorsal surface of the lunocapitate articulation. For this reason it can be mistaken for a loose body within this articulation 1. Though quite rare, it has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of dorsal atraumatic wr...

Os styloideum

The os styloideum is an accessory ossicle of the wrist, situated between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bases. Radiographic appearance Given its position next to the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bases, it may be mistaken for a fracture, though this should not occur if an adequate lateral radiograph is a...

POLG-related disorders

POLG-related disorders, or polymerase gamma-related disorders, describes a spectrum of genetic mitochondrial disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Epidemiology POLG-related disorders are very rare, with the most common sub-type having an incidence of approximately one in 50,000 people 1. Cli...

Radial recurrent artery

The radial recurrent artery is the largest lateral branch of the radial artery in the forearm, arising just after its origin. It courses proximally on supinator from its origin to form an arterial arcade with the anterior branch (radial collateral artery) of the profunda brachii (deep brachial) ...

Meningocele manqué

Meningocele manqué (from French, literally "missed meningocele") is a rare condition characterized by focal dorsal tethering of the spinal cord. The term is used to designate a meningocele which failed to develop and became atretic. Epidemiology It has been reported in neonates, but median age...


Cholangiohepatoma refers to a synchronous cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a rare and aggressive primary hepatic tumour. The origin of cholangiohepatoma is closely linked to the origin of cholangiocarcinoma rather than hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiology The inci...

Systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS lupus) describe a wide variety of neuropsychiatric manifestations that are secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the central nervous system (CNS). For a general discussion, and for links to other system spec...

Tension gastrothorax

Tension gastrothorax describes a rare life-threatening condition caused by mediastinal shift due to a distended stomach herniating into the thorax through a diaphragmatic defect.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with acute and severe respiratory failure, with clinical features ...

Suprapubic cartilaginous cyst

Suprapubic cartilaginous cysts (SPCC) are rare cystic lesions arising from the symphysis pubis thought to be degenerative in origin. They have also been called retropubic or subpubic cysts. Epidemiology In the small number of cases in the literature, all bar one patient, have been female. The ...


Neuroferritinopathy, also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2 (NBIA type 2), is a disorder of iron metabolism caused by a mutation in the ferritin light chain 1 gene (FTL1) on chromosome 19. Epidemiology Neuroferritinopathy is a rare disorder first described in 2001 ...

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a dystrophinopathy and the most common muscular dystrophy. Epidemiology DMD has an incidence of 1 in 3500 to 5000 males 1,2. The condition is extremely rare in females due to its inheritance pattern, as discussed below 1. Clinical presentation The charact...


Neurocandidiasis results from disseminated infection of the central nervous system by the fungus Candida albicans, usually manifesting as cerebral micro-abscesses and meningitis. Epidemiology CNS disease is thought to occur in up to 52% of patients with disseminated candidiasis, but predominat...

Variably protease sensitive prionopathy

Variably protease sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a very rare type of sporadic human prion disease that was first described in 2008. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation is varied, but most patients demonstrate a combination of: progressive neuropsychiatric features: dementia and psyc...


Endophthalmitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition that involves intraocular inflammation of any cause. It is either infectious or noninfectious in aetiology, but in clinical practice, intraocular infections are the commonest.  Clinical presentation Eye pain and discomfort are common...

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