Items tagged “cases”

4,743 results found
Article

Chronic hip subluxation

Chronic hip subluxation most common occurs in paediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g. cerebral palsy). It is considered a form of developmental hip dysplasia.  Epidemiology Chronic hip subluxation occurs in ~45% of cerebral palsy patients who are not walking by 5 years of age 3....
Article

Chronic hip subluxation

Chronic hip subluxation most common occurs in paediatric patients with neuromuscular disorders (e.g. cerebral palsy). It is considered a form of developmental hip dysplasia.  Epidemiology Chronic hip subluxation occurs in ~45% of cerebral palsy patients who are not walking by 5 years of age 3....
Article

Bayonet deformity

Bayonet deformity is a term used to describe the shape of the wrist in certain conditions: Madelung deformity hereditary multiple exostosis with pseudo-Madelung deformity retarded bone growth of the distal ulna with outward bowing of the radius with distal radioulnar joint subluxation Colles...
Article

Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
Article

Gastric lymph node stations

Gastric lymph node stations were originally divided into 16 groups proposed by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer in 1963. Gross anatomy The areas of stomach which drain into regional lymph nodes: cardia and proximal lesser curvature drain into left gastric lymph nodes, then int...
Article

Hamate

The hamate is one of the carpal bones, forms part of the distal carpal row and has a characteristic hook on its volar surface. Gross anatomy Osteology The hamate has a wedge-shaped body. It bears an uncinate (unciform) hamulus (hook of hamate) which projects in a volar fashion from the dista...
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Tibia

The tibia (plural: tibiae) is the largest bone of the leg and contributes to the knee and ankle joints. (shin- or shank-bone are lay terms). It is medial to and much stronger than the fibula, exceeded in length only by the femur. Gross anatomy Osteology The tibia has a prismoid shaft, expande...
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Complex meniscal tear

Complex meniscal tears extend in more than one plane, and can in turn create separate flaps of meniscus.  Radiographic features MRI knee The mensical tear usually includes a combination of radial, horizontal, and longitudinal components (any two or all three). Often the meniscus substance app...
Article

Complex meniscal tear

Complex meniscal tears extend in more than one plane, and can in turn create separate flaps of meniscus.  Radiographic features MRI knee The mensical tear usually includes a combination of radial, horizontal, and longitudinal components (any two or all three). Often the meniscus substance app...
Article

Appendiceal carcinoid

Appendiceal carcinoids are rare overall but represent the most common tumour of the appendix. The appendix is also one of the most common (but not the most common) locations for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.  Clinical presentation Appendiceal carcinoids can present as the obstructive cau...
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Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Epidemiology FCMD is almost exclusively found in Japan where it has an incidence of 2-4 per 100,000 infants and is the second most common muscular dystrophy after Duchenne muscular dystrophy 1,2. However,...
Article

Metatarsals

The metatarsals consist of five long bones in the foot. They are numbered from 1st to 5th from the medial side of the foot to lateral. They are analogous to the metacarpals of the hand. Gross anatomy The metatarsal bones run from the tarsus, forming the tarsometatarsal joints, to the base of p...
Article

Oesophageal dysmotility

Oesophageal dysmotility refers to the pathological disruption of the normal sequential and coordinated muscle motion of the oesophagus to transport food from the oropharynx to the stomach. It is an umbrella term used to refer to the common pathophysiological endpoint of dysmotility that can be c...
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Bones of the upper limb

The bones in the upper limb can be divided into those within the arm and pectoral girdle (3), forearm (2) and wrist and hand (27). There are also a number of accessory ossicles, predominantly occurring at the wrist.  Bones of the arm and pectoral girdle clavicle scapula humerus Bones of the...
Article

Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
Article

Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
Article

Butterfly fragment (fracture)

Butterfly fragments are large, triangular fracture fragments seen commonly in comminuted long bone fractures. The term is commonly used in orthopaedic surgery, and results from two oblique fracture lines meeting to create a large triangular or wedge-shaped fragment located between the proximal a...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
Article

Keratosis obturans

Keratosis obturans is a rare external auditory canal disease characterised by abnormal accumulation and consequently occlusion and expansion of the bony portion of the EAC by a plug of desquamated keratin. It can be confused by EAC cholesteatoma but they are completely different entities require...
Article

Malignant oesophageal neoplasms

Malignant oesophageal neoplasms are much more common than benign oesophageal neoplasms, especially if the patient is symptomatic.  Pathology oesophageal carcinoma (90%) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oesophageal spindle cell carcinoma oesophageal adenocarcinoma oesophageal neuro...

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