Items tagged “cases”

4,745 results found
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Malignant oesophageal neoplasms

Malignant oesophageal neoplasms are much more common than benign oesophageal neoplasms, especially if the patient is symptomatic.  Pathology oesophageal carcinoma (90%) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oesophageal spindle cell carcinoma oesophageal adenocarcinoma oesophageal neuro...
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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common neuromuscular junction disease and presents with increasing fatigue brought on by exertion.  Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 15-20 per 100,000 1,2. Females are more affected (3:1) under the age of 40, but males are more affected by the age of 50...
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Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Aetiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomega...
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Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke

Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke (also referred to as diffusion lesion reversal) is encountered early in the course of ischaemic infarction, most frequently in the setting of reperfusion within 3 to 6 hours of onset 1. In the vast majority of cases it is transient and does not represent tr...
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Transient ischaemic attack

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA), in the most recent definition, corresponds to a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischaemia, without acute infarction. Terminology  In the past, TIA was arbitrarily distinguished from stroke by the dur...
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Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural haematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat i...
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Atrial-oesophageal fistula

Atrio-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of ...
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Atrial-oesophageal fistula

Atrio-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of ...
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Antopol-Goldman lesion

Antopol-Goldman lesions are very rare presentations of subepithelial haemorrhage in the renal pelvis, presenting as discrete mass-like haematomas. Pathology The cause of these lesions is uncertain, although long-term anticoagulation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overuse, trauma...
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Vaginal artery

The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males. Summary origin: anterior div...
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Meniscocapsular separation

Meniscocapsular separation refers to detachment of the meniscus from its capsular attachments. It is an uncommon injury. Clinical presentation Clinical findings are nonspecific and can include pain, instability, and joint effusion. Pathology Location it is more common in the medial (more fr...
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Pulmonary chondroma

Pulmonary chondromas are rare, benign cartilaginous tumours of the lungs, and form part of the Carney triad although they can also arise sporadically. Epidemiology Sporadic pulmonary chondromas occur most frequently in middle-aged males, while those associated with Carney triad occur most freq...
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Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernous malformations

The Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernomas has been proposed as a way of classifying cerebral cavernous malformations, and although not used in clinical practice it is useful in scientific publications that seek to study cavernous malformations. The classification was proposed in 1994 ...
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Juvenile osteoporosis

Juvenile osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis occurring in children. Pathology Aetiology It can arise from a number of causes 1-4: primary conditions osteogenesis imperfecta Bruck syndrome osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Marfan syndrome homocystinuria secondar...
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Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. These can have calcification, hyalinization, and cystic cavitation that can be identified on imaging. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing de...
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Butterfly sign (choroid plexus)

The butterfly sign refers to the normal appearance of the choroid plexuses on axial imaging of the fetal brain, commonly observed on the antenatal ultrasound. Its absence may suggest holoprosencephaly 1. In the CNS, the term should not be confused with a butterfly glioma, which is a glioblastom...
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Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX)

Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) is an important genomic marker of gliomas. Loss/mutation of ATRX is almost never seen in patients with 1p/19q co-deletion (i.e. they are essentially mutually exclusive). Oligodendrogliomas will, therefore, have intact ATRX and 1p19q c...
Article

Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX)

Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) is an important genomic marker of gliomas. Loss/mutation of ATRX is almost never seen in patients with 1p/19q co-deletion (i.e. they are essentially mutually exclusive). Oligodendrogliomas will, therefore, have intact ATRX and 1p19q c...
Article

Sacral hiatus

The sacral hiatus corresponds to the posterior caudal opening at the end of the sacral canal, which usually occurs at the fifth sacral vertebra (S5), at the posterior surface of the sacrum. Gross anatomy Location Commonly, the sacral hiatus corresponds to the non-formation of S5 spinous proce...
Article

Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma

Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is an uncommon intermediate grade fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumour.  Epidemiology It typically affects adults. Clinical presentation The patient may present with painless swelling. Pathology This tumour is microscopically characterised by sol...

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