Items tagged “cases”

4,568 results found
Article

Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
Article

Internal pudendal artery

The internal pudendal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and is the primary supply of the perineum. It is a larger vessel in males than in females. Summary origin: anterior division of internal iliac artery location: pelvis, gluteal region, perineum supp...
Article

Butterfly fragment (fracture)

Butterfly fragments are large, triangular fracture fragments seen commonly in comminuted long bone fractures. The term is commonly used in orthopaedic surgery, and results from two oblique fracture lines meeting to create a large triangular or wedge-shaped fragment located between the proximal a...
Article

Denver criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Denver criteria are a set of screening criteria for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in trauma used to reduce the need for CT angiography and its associated radiation exposure.  Screening criteria The screening protocol criteria 1,3 for BCVI are divided into signs and symptoms of BCVI a...
Article

Keratosis obturans

Keratosis obturans (KO) is a rare external auditory canal disease characterised by abnormal accumulation and consequently occlusion and expansion of the bony portion of the EAC by a plug of desquamated keratin. It can be confused by EAC cholesteatoma but they are completely different entities re...
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Malignant oesophageal neoplasms

Malignant oesophageal neoplasms are much more common than benign oesophageal neoplasms, especially if the patient is symptomatic.  Pathology oesophageal carcinoma (90%) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) oesophageal spindle cell carcinoma oesophageal adenocarcinoma oesophageal neuro...
Article

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common neuromuscular junction disease, and presents with increasing fatigue brought on by exertion.  Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 15-20 per 100,000 1,2. Females are more affected (3:1) under the age of 40, but males are more affected over the age of...
Article

Chorioretinitis

Chorioretinitis refers to inflammation of the retina and choroid. As a delayed sequelae, it is one of the causes of calcification of the globe. It is often considered a form of posterior uveitis. Pathology Aetiology various congenital infections such as  2,3 rubella: ocular rubella cytomega...
Article

Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke

Early DWI reversal in ischaemic stroke (also referred to as diffusion lesion reversal) is encountered early in the course of ischaemic infarction, most frequently in the setting of reperfusion within 3 to 6 hours of onset 1. In the vast majority of cases it is transient and does not represent tr...
Article

Transient ischaemic attack

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA), in the most recent definition, corresponds to a transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischaemia, without acute infarction. Terminology  In the past TIA was arbitrarily distinguished from stroke by the dura...
Article

Extrapleural haematoma

Extrapleural haematomas are uncommon and usually seen in the context of rib fracture, subclavian venous catheter traumatic insertion, and blunt chest injury. Pathology Extrapleural haematomas result from the accumulation of blood in the extrapleural space where the overlying extrapleural fat i...
Article

Atrial-oesophageal fistula

Atrio-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of ...
Article

Atrial-oesophageal fistula

Atrio-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of ...
Article

Antopol-Goldman lesion

Antopol-Goldman lesions are very rare presentations of subepithelial haemorrhage in the renal pelvis, presenting as discrete mass-like haematomas. Pathology The cause of these lesions is uncertain, although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overuse, trauma, and amyloidosis have been...
Article

Vaginal artery

The vaginal artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and should not to be mistaken with the vaginal branch of the uterine artery. It is often considered to be a homolog of the inferior vesical artery, which is present only in males. Summary origin: anterior div...
Article

Meniscocapsular separation

Meniscocapsular separation refers to detachment of the meniscus from its capsular attachments. It is an uncommon injury. Clinical presentation Clinical findings are nonspecific and can include pain, instability, and joint effusion. Pathology Location it is more common in the medial (more fr...
Article

Pulmonary chondroma

Pulmonary chondromas are rare, benign cartilaginous tumours of the lungs, and form part of the Carney triad although they can also arise sporadically. Epidemiology Sporadic pulmonary chondromas occur most frequently in middle-aged males, while those associated with Carney triad occur most freq...
Article

Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernous malformations

The Zabramski classification of cerebral cavernomas has been proposed as a way of classifying cerebral cavernous malformations, and although not used in clinical practice it is useful in scientific publications that seek to study cavernous malformations. The classification was proposed in 1994 ...
Article

Ancient schwannoma

Ancient schwannomas are long-standing, benign (WHO grade I) slow growing schwannomas with advanced degeneration. These can have calcification, hyalinization, and cystic cavitation that can be identified on imaging. The term “ancient” has been traditionally used to describe schwannomas showing de...
Article

Butterfly sign (choroid plexus)

The butterfly sign refers to the normal appearance of the choroid plexuses on axial imaging of the fetal brain, commonly observed on the antenatal ultrasound. Its absence may suggest holoprosencephaly 1. In the CNS, the term should not be confused with a butterfly glioma, which is a glioblastom...

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