Items tagged “cases”

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Ethmocephaly refers to a rare type of midline cranio-facial anomaly that is characterised by the presence of extreme hypotelorism, arrhinia and a midline proboscis.  Pathology Associations holoprosencephaly 1-2: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly See also cebocephaly


Cebocephaly refers to a type of rare midline craniofacial anomaly where there is a single nostril (which usually ends blindly 6-7) with proboscis-like nose 8 and hypotelorism. Pathology Associations holoprosencephaly: particularly alobar holoprosencephaly trisomy 13 See also ethmocephaly ...

Ravitch procedure

The Ravitch procedure is one of the corrective surgical treatments for pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum. The costal cartilage is removed and the sternum detached before inserting a small bar underneath the sternum to hold it in the desired position. The bar is left implanted until the carti...

Apical zone

The apical zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones and an important location for missed diagnoses when reporting a frontal chest radiograph and makes up one of the "check areas". It is sometimes thought of as a subdivision of the upper zone.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph port...

Galea aponeurotica

The galea aponeurotica (also called the Galeal or epicranial aponeurosis or the aponeurosis epicranialis) is a tough fibrous sheet of connective tissue that extends over the cranium, forming the middle (third) layer of the scalp. Gross anatomy Attachments anteriorly: frontalis posteriorly o...

Inorganic dust

Inorganic dust types are derived from mineral rather than biological elements (organic compounds). Inhalation of these dusts may result in lung disease (pneumoconiosis), often after years of cumulative exposure. The commonest inhaled dusts that cause disease are asbestos, silica and coal dust. ...

Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus clavatus is one of the species of Aspergillus that can cause pathology in humans. It is allergenic and causes a hypersensitivity pneumonitis called malt-workers lung. See also Aspergillus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus clavatus

Aspergillus flavus

Aspergillus flavus is a fungus and one of the species of Aspergillus that is common in the environment and responsible for pathology in humans. It is the second most common cause of pulmonary aspergillosis (after Aspergillus fumigatus) and can additionally cause corneal, otomycotic, and nasoorb...


Aflatoxins are naturally occuring mycotoxins that are produced by Aspergillus species, especially Aspergillus flavus. They are acutely toxic and carcinogenic. Acute exposure High-level aflatoxin exposure can result acute aflatoxicosis with acute hepatic necrosis, resulting in cirrhosis, and po...


The lungs are the functional units of respiration and are key to survival. They contain 1500 miles of airways, 300-500 million alveoli and have a combined surface area of 70 square meters (half a tennis court). Each lung weighs approximately 1.1 Kg.  They are affected by a wide range of patholog...

Left lower lobe

The left lower lobe (LLL) is one of two lobes in the left lung. It is separated from the left upper lobe by the left oblique fissure and subdivided into four bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatomy Location and structure The LLL lies in the posterior and lower aspect of the left hemithorax a...

Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy

Bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy describes the division of the lungs into segments based on the tertiary or segmental bronchi. Gross anatomy The trachea divides at the carina forming the left and right main stem bronchi which enter the lung substance to divide further. This initial division ...

Left upper lobe apicoposterior segment

The left upper lobe apicoposterior segment is one of the bronchopulmonary segments of the left upper lobe. As its name suggests, it is the most apical and posterior of the segments within the left upper lobe and is supplied by the left apicoposterior segmental bronchus. It is the equivalent seg...

Right upper lobe apical segment

The right upper lobe apical segment is one of the three bronchopulmonary segments of the right upper lobe. It is the most apical of the segments in the right upper lobe, and the right lung. Together with the posterior segment, it is analogous to the left upper lobe apicoposterior segment and oc...

Melting ice cube sign (lungs)

The melting ice cube sign describes the resolution of pulmonary haemorrhage following pulmonary embolism (PE).  When there is pulmonary haemorrhage without infarction following PE, the typical wedge-shaped, pleural-based opacification (Hampton's hump) resolves within a week while preserving its...

Eye of the tiger sign (globus pallidus)

The eye of the tiger sign refers to abnormal low T2 signal on MRI (due to abnormal accumulation of iron) in the globus pallidus with a longitudinal stripe of high signal (due to gliosis and spongiosis).  The eye of the tiger sign is most classically associated with Pantothenate kinase-associate...


Gastrinomas are the second most common pancreatic endocrine tumour and the most common type in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). Epidemiology Most gastrinomas are sporadic, although some are seen in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I). In genera...

Delayed myocardial enhancement

Delayed myocardial enhancement, as seen on cardiac MRI, occurs when gadolinium contrast material seeps into fibrotic or necrotic myocardial tissue. It is due to a number of aetiologies, and has variable appearances. subendocardial enhancement indicates an ischaemic aetiology transmural enhance...

Rett syndrome

Rett syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease seen in young girls in the 2nd to 4th months of life.  The majority of cases result from a mutation in the MECP2 gene; a more severe subset of the disease arises from a CDKL5 mutation1. Clinical presentation Following a period of normal develop...

Behçet disease (CNS manifestations)

CNS manifestations of Behçet disease, also known as neuro-Behçet disease, corresponds to the neurological involvement of the systemic vasculitis Behçet disease and has a variety of manifestations.  For a discussion of the disease in general please refer to Behçet disease article.  Epidemiology...

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