Items tagged “cases”

3,993 results found

Breast cancer (staging)

Breast cancer staging uses the TNM staging system and then into stage groupings. Classification TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1 T1a: 0.1-0.5 cm T1b: 0.5-1.0 cm T1c: 1.0- 2.0 cm T2: 2-5 cm ...

Bronchial atresia

Bronchial atresia is a developmental anomaly characterised by focal obliteration of the proximal segment of a bronchus associated with hyperinflation of the distal lung.  On imaging, it commonly presents as a proximal focal tubular shaped opacity radiating from the hilum associated with a dista...


Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy, characterised by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischaemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known ...

CHARGE syndrome

CHARGE syndrome is an acronym that classically describes a combination head and neck, cardiac, CNS and genitourinary disorders: C: coloboma H: heart defects (congenital heart disease) A: atresia (choanal) R: retardation (mental) G: genital hypoplasia E: ear abnormalities/deafness Patholog...

CREST syndrome

CREST syndrome is a variant of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) and stands for C - Calcinosis R - Raynaud phenomenon E - oEsophageal dysmotility S - Sclerodactyly T - Telangiectasia See also systemic sclerosis

Canavan disease

Canavan disease, also known as spongiform degeneration of white matter (not to be confused with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease) or aspartoacylase deficiency, is a leukodystrophy clinically characterised by megalencephaly, severe mental and neurological deficits, and blindness.  Epidemiology Canavan...

Caplan syndrome

Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis. Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...

Carney triad

The Carney triad (not to be confused with the related Carney Stratakis syndrome, or the unrelated Carney complex) is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas wer...

Cavernous sinus thrombosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare condition, most commonly infectious in nature, and the diagnosis on imaging is not always straightforward. It has high mortality and morbidity rates. Epidemiology CST is rare with ~4.5 cases per 1,000,000 per year 5. It is the least common dural venou...


Cementoblastoma is one of many mandibular lesions is a rare tumour of the cementum, with only approximately 100 cases reported. Key to diagnosis both radiologically and histologically is attachment to the tooth root.  Terminology Cementoblastomas have been previously described in the literatur...

Central bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Central bronchiectasis is typically seen in: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) congenital tracheobronchomegaly (a.k.a. Mounier Kuhn syndrome) cystic fibrosis Williams Campbell syndrome (rare) See a...

Central giant cell lesions (granuloma)

Central giant cell lesions (granulomas), also known as giant cell reparative cysts/granulomas, occurs almost exclusively in the mandible, although cases in the skull and maxilla have been reported. Epidemiology It is most frequently seen in young women (F:M 2:1) 5 and typically presents in the...

Cervical cancer (staging)

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8 stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)  stage I: confined to cervix stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy. Ia1: stromal inva...

Cervical ectopic pregnancy

Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare subtype of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology  It accounts for ~0.15-1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Pathology Implantation of the fertilized ovum occurs within the cervix rather than the uterine cavity. Unless the fetal heart rate can be identified, it is di...

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (staging)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.  Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue: CIN I similar to condy...

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis

Chemotherapy induced cholangitis is caused when intra-arterial chemotherapy is introduced to treat liver metastases. This causes strictures of the common hepatic duct and main ducts, but spares distal and proximal (i.e. common bile duct and intrahepatic ducts).  Radiographic features similar t...


A choristoma is simply a collection of microscopically normal cells or tissues in an abnormal location. This is different to a hamartoma which is derived only from local tissues. Examples include: adrenal choristoma (myelolipoma) nasopharyngeal choristoma facial nerve choristoma optic nerve...

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis Wegener's granulomatosis eo...

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...

Clinically isolated syndrome

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the first episode suggestive of demyelination. It can either be monofocal (single lesion) or multifocal. Not all patients with CIS will go on to develop multiple sclerosis (MS) however if at presentation there are changes on MRI suggestive of MS, then the ch...

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