Failed pregnancy is a pregnancy that will not carry through to term.
It is termed a miscarriage or failed early pregnancy when fetal demise occurs before 20 weeks gestational age and fetal death in utero (FDIU) when it occurs after 20 weeks gestation.
The term "non-viabl...
Amyoplasia congenita is a syndrome characterized by multiple specific congenital joint contractures, associated with substitution of muscular tissue by fibrosis and adipose tissue.
The estimated incidence is at 1: 10000 live births. There may be a higher prevalence with twin preg...
Abnormally thickened endometrium on imaging may occur for a number of reasons which may be categorised based on whether or not they are related to pregnancy. Aetiologies may also be classified based on whether the patient is premenopausal or postmenopausal.
Marginal cord insertion is a type of abnormal cord insertion.
The estimated incidence is at ~7% 1 of singleton pregnancies but ~25% of twin pregnancies. Hence, it is very important to locate the umbilical cord in all patients, particularly in high risk pregnancy.
Chondroectodermal dysplasia, also known as the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, is a rare type of skeletal dysplasia. It is classified as a type of mesomelic limb shortening 5.
Clinical features include:
narrowing of thorax with short ribs
small and flared ilia
Coronal vertebral cleft refers to the presence of a radiolucent vertical defect on a lateral radiograph.
It is most often seen in premature male infants 1,3. As they can occur as part of normal variation (especially in the lower thoracic-upper lumbar spine of premature infants) ...
A fetal arteriovenous malformation (FAVM) is essentially an arteriovenous malformation that presenting in utero. They tend to be very different in location to those that commonly occur in children and adults.
fetal intracranial arteriovenous malformations
vein of Galen malformati...
Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are a sub-type of an ovarian tumour of epithelial origin. The vast majority are malignant and invasive.
Endometrioid carcinomas account for 8-15% of all ovarian carcinomas. It is considered the second commonest malignant ovarian neoplasm 8.
Malignant mixed Mullerian is tumour (MMMT) (sometimes referred to as a carcinosarcoma) is a an uncommon malignancy that can occur anywhere along the female genital tract.
It is comprised of both epithelial (carcinomatous) and stromal (sarcomatous) components.
Implicated risk factors...
Ovarian mucinous tumours are a subgroup of ovarian epithelial tumours. They represent ~20% of all ovarian tumours and ~10% of all malignant ovarian tumours.
Mucinous ovarian tumours can be broadly sub-classified into three main subgroups:
ovarian mucinous cystadenoma: ~80...
A pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare form of ovarian malignancy. It falls under the sub category of ovarian germ cell tumours.
They are thought to to account for less than 1% of ovarian tumours.
They are a type of non gestational choriocarcinoma....
The posterior nipple line (PNL) refers to a line drawn posteriorly and perpendicularly from the nipple towards the pectoral muscle on the mammogram. In an adequately exposed breast, the measurement difference of this line between a CC view and MLO view should be ideally within 1 cm. It is the fi...
Asymmetry in breast size can arise from a number of factors.
Breasts are rarely absolutely the same size or volume. Normal variation is common. Most females have slight discrepancies in breast size. Asymmetric progressive breast enlargement is unusual but known. The role of the breas...
Low set ears is a descriptive term used to given a depressed or abnormally low positioning of the pinna by two or more standard deviations below the population average.
Low set ears can be associated with a number of anomalies which include
aneuploidic / chromosomal sy...
Apocrine metaplasia of the breast is a benign breast condition and is sometimes considered part of or associated with fibrocystic change. It is a common finding in the female breast particularly after the age of 25 and many regard it as a normal component of the breast.
Pulmonary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulomatosis are important since the lung is one of the most frequent sites of involvement in lymphomatoid granulomatosis. It forms under the group of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis.
Some consider the condition to be midway between ov...
Pulmonary manifestations are relatively common in rheumatoid arthritis, and like many of its non-articular manifestations, tend to develop later in the disease.
Please refer to the related articles for a general discussion of rheumatoid arthritis, and for the specific discussion of its musculos...
An ovarian borderline mucinous cystadenoma is a sub type of ovarian mucinous tumours and as the name stands is intermediate between a mucinous cystadenoma and a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.
They account for ~ 10-15% of all ovarian mucinous tumours.
They are microscopic...
Inter twin membrane folding is an observation where the inter twin membrane in a twin pregnancy appears as being folded. It is sometimes used as a predictor for the development of twin to twin transfusion syndrome. It occurs as a result of amniotic fluid discordance.
Some reports suggest that ...
A Fallopian tube polyp refers to a small focal lesion of ectopic endometrial tissue located at the intramural portion of the fallopian tube.
The reported incidence is 1- 2.5% on hysterosalpingograms performed for assessment of infertility 3
Most patients w...