Fetal bowel dilatation can occur from many causes which include
intestinal atresias: mainly distal
apple-peel intestinal atresia
megacystis microcolon hyperperistalsis syndrome 4
congenital chloride dia...
Fetal hypoxia (FH) (also known as intrauterine hypoxia (IH)) occurs when the fetus is deprived of an adequate supply of oxygen.
Fetal hypoxia can occur from a number of reasons:
umbilical cord prolapse
cord occlusion or cord thrombosis
Ovarian cystic neoplasms can be either benign or malignant and can arise from epithelial, stromal, or germ cell components. In general, the risk of malignancy in unilocular cystic tumours <10 cm in women over 50 is thought to be low 3-4.
ovarian mature cystic teratoma
Mirror syndrome or triple oedema or Ballantyne syndrome is a rare disorder affecting pregnant women. It refers to the unusual association of fetal and placental hydrops with maternal pre-eclampsia and oedema.
History and etymology
It was first described in 1892 by John William Ballantyne.
Fetal neuroblastoma is a type of congenital neuroblastoma (neuroblastoma arising in utero).
The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 20,000 births.
In the vast majority (~90%) of cases fetal neuroblastomas arise in the adrenal glands. They have been diagnosed as early as 19...
Fetal polycythaemia is manifested by an abnormally increased central venous haematocrit (Hct) level in utero. One of the key concerns with polycythaemia is related to hyperviscosity and its associated complications.
twin to twin transfusion syndrome: in recipient twin
Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis is a benign and extremely rare condition in which the uterus is symmetrically enlarged as a result of the almost complete replacement of the myometrium by innumerable poorly defined, confluent leiomyomatous nodules.
Initial symptoms of the ...
A parasitic leiomyoma is a considered a type of extra-uterine leiomyoma and presents as peritoneal pelvic benign smooth-muscle masses separate from the uterus.
It likely originates as a pedunculated subserosal leiomyoma that twists and torses from its uterine pedicle. The contact wi...
Testicular epidermoid cysts, also known as keratocysts, are rare benign tumours of germ cell origin that occur in the testis.
Testicular epidermoid cysts account for around 1-2% of all testicular masses and typically present in mid-adulthood (2nd to 4th decades) 1,2. They are the...
Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVLM) is characterised by the extension into venous channels of histologically benign smooth muscle tumour arising from either the wall of a vessel or from a uterine leiomyoma.
Intravenous leiomyomatosis should not be confused with benign metastasising leiomyoma, in ...
Diffuse/disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL), also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum.
DPL is usual...
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is an extremly rare chromosomal anomaly.
It may be more prevalent in woman of advanced age 4.
It is a polymalformative complex with tetrasomy of isochromosome 12p although many cases are mosaic.
The majority of cases are th...
Multifocal breast cancer refers to two or more individual breast cancers diagnosed at the same time within the same quadrant of the same breast 1.
The Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is a rare a pleiotropic, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome.
It is primarily characterized by:
pre-axial polydactyly (most common 2) or
mixed pre- and post-axial polydactyly
true ocular hypertelorism
Polysyndactyly refers to the combined presence of polydactyly as well as syndactyly involving either the hands or feet.
Polysyndactyly can be associated with a number of syndromes which includes:
type I: Noack syndrome
type II: Carpenter syndrome (typically...
A fetal urachal cyst refers to a urachal cyst occuring in utero. It may or may not communicate with the vertex of the fetal bladder. It may also arise within the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord urachal cysts originate from an extra-abdominal urachal system.
fetal intra-abdominal cysts...
Theca lutein cysts (TLC), also known as hyperreactio luteinalis (HL), are a type of functional ovarian cysts. They are typically multiple and seen bilaterally.
They are thought to originate due to excessive amounts of circulating gonadotrophins such as beta-hCG. Hyperplasia of the th...
Blocked premature atrial contractions (BPACs) are considered a type cardiac bradyarrhythmia and if occurring in utero is classified under a fetal bradyarrhythmia.
It is seen when a premature atrial contraction occurs very early on and consequently it is not conducted into the v...
There can be many variations in fetal presentation which is determined by which part of the fetus is projecting towards the internal cervical os. This includes:
cephalic presentation: fetal head presenting towards the internal cervical os, considered normal and occurs in the vast majority of b...
Placental grading (Grannum classification) refers to a ultrasound grading system of the placenta based on its maturity. This primarily affects the extent of calcifications. In some countries the use of placental grading has fallen out of obstetric practice.
The grading system is as follows: