Items tagged “cases”

3,942 results found

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational disease (type of pneumoconiosis) caused by exposure to coal dust free of silica (washed coal). Histologically, CWP is classified according to disease severity into simple (presence of coal macules) and complicated (with progressive massive fi...

Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis prop...

Colonic stricture

Colonic strictures can be long (>10 cm) or short. Short scirrhous colorectal carcinoma (apple core sign) post surgical (anastamotic stricture) Long malignancy scirrhous colorectal carcinoma gastrointestinal lymphoma inflammatory bowel disease (IDB) ulcerative colitis Crohn disease pos...

Congenital cholesteatoma

Congenital cholesteatomas are identical to epidermoid cysts, differing only in name and location.  Pathology They are intraosseous inclusions of ectoderm, and are therefore comprised of keratin debris and cholesterol. Characteristically, they are located at the petrous apex. In contrast middle...

Congenital facial palsy

A congenital facial palsy (CFP) is an uncommon cause of neonatal asymmetric crying facies, which are more frequently due to absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle, often associated with other congenital anomalies.  Epidemiology CFP are reported with an incidence of ~0.2% of ...

Constrictive pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis (or perhaps better termed pericardial constriction) is a type of pericarditis which leads to diastolic dysfunction and potentially symptoms of right heart failure.  Epidemiology No single demographic is affected as there are numerous causes of constrictive pericarditi...

Cotton wool appearance (bone)

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...

Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are neuronal intranuclear inclusions seen in Herpes simplex virus infections.

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...

Cystic mediastinal masses

The differential diagnosis for cystic masses of the mediastinum include: bronchogenic cyst oesophageal duplication cyst neuroenteric cyst pericardial cyst meningocele lymphangioma thymic cyst cystic teratoma cystic degeneration of an intrathoracic tumour mediastinal thoracic duct cyst ...

Cystic renal diseases

Cystic renal disease can be confusing. There are many conditions, many of which have similar names or are eponymous, and with a few exceptions, are relatively rare. It is easiest to think of them into two separate demographic: paediatric cystic renal diseases adult cystic renal disease

Denervation changes in muscles

Denervation changes in muscles can be observed in a number of settings. Radiographic features MRI in the very early stage, muscle signal may be normal earliest change is increased T2 signal (best seen on a fat saturated T2WI such as STIR) chronic changes are marked by muscle atrophy and fat...

Azygo-oesophageal recess deviation

The azygoesophageal recess (AER) is formed by the interface between the right lung and the mediastinal reflection of the azygos vein oesphagus. The line has a variable appearance: in its upper third, it deviates to the right, where it may either be straight or concave relative to the right ...

Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic disease, is a severe demyelinating disease caused by an autoantibody to aquaporin-4 water channel. Previously NMO had been considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it has become evident that they are distinct entities showing many overl...

Disorganised periosteal reaction

Disorganised or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It can be seen in highly aggressive processes: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous histiocytoma spindle cell sarcoma See also...

Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...

Double decidual sac sign

The double decidual sac sign (DDSS) is a useful feature on early pregnancy ultrasound to confirm an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) when the yolk sac or embryo is still not visualised. It consists of the decidua parietalis (lining the uterine cavity) and decidua capsularis (lining the gestati...

Double line sign

The double line sign is an MRI finding seen at the periphery of a region of osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis, bone infarct). It is best seen on T2 weighted sequences and consists of an inner bright T2 line representing granulation tissue and an outer dark line representing sclerotic bone. This ...

Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the ligamentum arteriosum, at the aortic isthmus. This is also the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries as the ligamentu...

Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...

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