Items tagged “cases”

3,963 results found
Article

Dysphagia lusoria

Dysphagia lusoria is an impairment of swallowing due to compression from an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). Clinical presentation Most patients with aberrant right subclavian arteries do not have symptoms. Some present with mild dysphagia, while a small minority have a seve...
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Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Patau syndrome (trisomy13), make up the only three trisomies to be compatible with extra-uterine life in non-mosaic forms, albeit in the case of Edward syndrome only for a week or so.  Epidemiology After Down...
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Empty gestational sac

Empty gestational sacs can be due to a number of causes: anembryonic pregnancy (also known as "blighted ovum") early pregnancy (intrauterine): by 5.5 weeks gestational age, a yolk sac should be identifiable by transvaginal ultrasound pseudogestational sac with an ectopic pregnancy gestationa...
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Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELST) are very rare, locally invasive tumours of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumours is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumours do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epi...
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Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogenous group of disorders that are characterised by excess infiltration of the eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis...
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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...
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Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocation

Essex-Lopresti fracture-dislocations comprise of a comminuted fracture of the radial head accompanied by dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). The force of trauma is transmitted down the forearm through the interosseous membrane causing disruption. The DRUJ injury may be missed lead...
Article

Eustachian tube dysfunction

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is considered by many to be the underlying cause of chronic otomastoiditis, although both the exact pathogenesis and role of ETD in chronic middle ear infections is unclear. Epidemiology ETD is estimated to be present in ~1% of the adult population. Pathology...
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Extension tear drop fracture

Extension tear drop fracture typically occurs due to forced extension of the neck with resulting avulsion of the anteroinferior corner of the vertebral body. Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion, and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extensio...
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External petrosal nerve

The external petrosal nerve is one of the three branches from the geniculate ganglion. It carries sympathetic fibers to the middle meningeal artery.
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Extramural air cell

An extramural air cell is one that is not contained within its named parent bone. So, the infraorbital ethmoidal air cells that lie within the maxilla rather than the ethmoidal bone are an example of extramural air cells.
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Eye of the tiger sign (globus pallidus)

The eye of the tiger sign refers to abnormal low T2 signal on MRI (due to abnormal accumulation of iron) in the globus pallidus with a longitudinal stripe of high signal (due to gliosis and spongiosis).  The eye of the tiger sign is most classically associated with pantothenate kinase-associate...
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Facet joint injection

Facet (zygapophyseal) joint injections are one of the most frequently performed spinal interventional procedures, as both treatment for and diagnosis of radicular pain syndrome and facet syndrome. It can be performed under fluoroscopic, or CT image guidance and cervical, thoracic or most commonl...
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Facial colliculus

The facial colliculus is an elevation on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is not formed by the facial nerve nucleus, but by the fibres of the facial nerve arching backwards around the abducens nerve (CN VI) nucleus before turning forwards once more in the caudal pons. Related pathology A ...
Article

Facial nerve choristoma

Facial nerve choristomas are rare, being characterised by non-neoplastic proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue. Facial nerve choristomas presumably can occur anywhere along the course of the facial nerve (CN VII), although the only cases reported are in the internal acoustic me...
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Venous vascular malformation of the facial nerve

Venous vascular malformations of the facial nerve, previously known as facial nerve haemangiomas, are rare benign vascular malformations of the facial nerve usually presenting as a facial nerve palsy, which can be rapid onset mimicking a Bell palsy.  Terminology As they do not appear to have c...
Article

Uterine tube

The uterine tube, also known as the fallopian tube, is a paired structure that bridges between each ovary and the uterus and functions to convey the mature ovum from the former to the latter. If conception occurs, it normally does so within the tube. It can be affected by a wide range of patholo...
Article

Fatty nodal metaplasia

Fatty nodal metaplasia in the neck occurs as a result of chronic inflammation or radiotherapy 3. The normal fatty nodal hilum enlarges, such that the lymph node appears cystic. However, its center is of fatty density. There is no surrounding stranding, and the node otherwise looks normal. Diffe...
Article

Fishhook ureters

Fishhook ureters, also known as J-shaped ureters or hockey stick ureters describe the appearance of the distal ureter in patients with significant benign prostatic hypertrophy. It has also been used to describe the appearance of a retrocaval ureter further up, as the right ureter hooks behind th...

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