Items tagged “cases”

3,909 results found

Minor salivary glands

Minor salivary glands are a subset of the salivary glands. They are small and unnamed salivary glandular tissue scattered throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx as well as more widely in the mucosa of the aerodigestive tract.  They number in the hundreds and are important because salivary gl...

Salivary glands

The salivary glands within the head and neck secrete various enzymes useful for mastication and digestion. They can be divided into major and minor salivary glands: Major salivary glands The major salivary glands consist of the larger, paired salivary glands within the neck: parotid glands s...

Lateral rectus muscle

The lateral rectus muscle is one of the 6 extra-ocular muscles that control eye movements. It is responsible for abduction and is the only muscle that is innervated by the abducens nerve (CN VI). It should normally measure 2.9 ± 0.6mm. Summary innervation: abducens nerve (CN VI) origin: Annul...

Eisenmenger syndrome

Eisenmenger syndrome is a complication of an uncorrected high-flow, high-pressure congenital heart anomaly leading to chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension and shunt reversal. Epidemiology In general, the shunts that lead to Eisenmenger syndrome share are high pressure and high flow 3. As su...

Truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly in which a single trunk supplies both the pulmonary and systemic circulation, instead of a separate aorta and a pulmonary trunk. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly. It accounts for up to 2% of congenital cardiac anomalies ...

Sacral agenesis

Sacral agenesis (also considered as part of the caudal regression syndrome) is a rare and severe sacral developmental abnormality. Epidemiology In normal pregnancy, the incidence is between 0.005 and 0.1%. However, in fetuses with diabetic mothers, the incidence rises to 0.2%. Of those with th...

Spinal meningeal cyst

Spinal meningeal cysts are diverticulae of the arachnoid or dura mater or of the nerve root sheath. They are uncommon, usually asymptomatic and typically found incidentally at MRI (that has been performed for another reason).  Clinical presenation They cysts are usually asymptomatic, but if th...

Clavicle tumours

Clavicle tumours may be malignant or benign. Malignant metastases prostate breast cervix ovary urinary bladder carcinoid osteosarcoma osteosarcoma lymphoma primary metastatic Benign osteoma: uncommon, sclerotic, hamartomatous surface lesion enchondroma: rare, geographic, intramed...

Sclerotic clavicle

Sclerotic clavicles have many causes: trauma: fractured clavicle arthritis: osteoarthritis, seronegative arthritides condensans osteitis 1 SAPHO syndrome clavicular tumours metastases osteosarcoma lymphoma osteoblastoma bone island tumour-like lesions eosinophilic granuloma fibrous ...

SAPHO syndrome

The SAPHO syndrome is an acronym that refers to a rare condition that is manifested by a combined occurrence of 2 S: synovitis A: acne P: pustulosis  H: hyperostosis O: osteitis Epidemiology It classically tends to present in young to middle-aged adults. Presentation in the paediatric pop...

Acromioclavicular joint

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a plane synovial joint of the pectoral girdle. Gross anatomy The acromioclavicular joint is between the small facets of the convex distal clavicle and flat medial acromion. The articular surfaces are lined with hyaline cartilage 4. A fibrocartilaginous wedge...

Scaphoid non union

Scaphoid non-union is one of the complications of scaphoid fracture because of the unique anatomy of the scaphoid and its vascular supply. There are four types of non-union: fibrous (delayed union): stable with no deformity or collapse cystic: unstable and early collapse patterns sclerotic: ...

Lichen aureus (mnemonic)

The skin changes of lichen aureus can be remembered with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of lichen aureus Mnemonic pigmented purpuric papules in peripheral patches

Congenital hypothyroidism (mnemonic)

The features of an infant with congenital hypothyroidism can be recalled with the following mnemonic: 5 Ps of congenital hypothyroidism Mnemonic P: pot belly P: pallor P: puffy face P: protruding umbilicus P: poked out tongue

Lichen planus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to describe the skin lesions associated with lichen planus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: planar P: polygonal P: pruritic P: purple P: papular

Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling

Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition

Kager's triangle

Kager's triangle is a sharply marginated radiolucent triangle seen posteriorly on lateral radiographs of the ankle. It represents the Kager fat pad. It is bordered anteriorly by the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle and tendon, posteriorly by the Achilles tendon, and inferiorly by the calcane...

Contrast-induced nephropathy

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third most common cause of all hospital-acquired acute renal failure and accounts for ~10% of all cases. There is still an ongoing debate regarding its occurrence after intravenous contrast medium administration because most of the cases occur after intr...

Bronchial artery

The bronchial arteries are responsible for only 1% of the lung blood flow but they are the major high-pressure oxygenated blood supplier to the supporting structures of the lung parenchyma including pulmonary arteries. The classic pattern described below of two bronchial arteries on the left and...

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