Items tagged “cases”

4,576 results found
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Cystic mediastinal masses

The differential diagnosis for cystic masses of the mediastinum include: bronchogenic cyst oesophageal duplication cyst neuroenteric cyst pericardial cyst meningocele lymphangioma thymic cyst cystic teratoma cystic degeneration of an intrathoracic tumour mediastinal thoracic duct cyst ...
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Cystic renal diseases

Cystic renal disease can be confusing. There are many conditions, many of which have similar names or are eponymous, and with a few exceptions, are relatively rare. It is easiest to think of them into two separate demographic: paediatric cystic renal diseases adult cystic renal disease
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Denervation changes in muscles

Denervation changes in muscles can be observed in a number of settings. Radiographic features MRI in the very early stage, muscle signal may be normal earliest change is increased T2 signal (best seen on a fat saturated T2WI such as STIR) chronic changes are marked by muscle atrophy and fat...
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Azygo-oesophageal recess deviation

The azygoesophageal recess (AER) is formed by the interface between the right lung and the mediastinal reflection of the azygos vein oesphagus. The line has a variable appearance: in its upper third, it deviates to the right, where it may either be straight or concave relative to the right ...
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Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic disease and, more recently, NMO spectrum disorder, is a severe demyelinating disease caused by an autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 water channel. Previously NMO had been considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it has become evident that...
Article

Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic disease and, more recently, NMO spectrum disorder, is a severe demyelinating disease caused by an autoantibody to the aquaporin-4 water channel. Previously NMO had been considered a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it has become evident that...
Article

Disorganised periosteal reaction

Disorganised or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It can be seen in highly aggressive processes: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous histiocytoma spindle cell sarcoma See also...
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Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...
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Double decidual sac sign

The double decidual sac sign (DDSS) is a useful feature on early pregnancy ultrasound to confirm an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) when the yolk sac or embryo is still not visualised. It consists of the decidua parietalis (lining the uterine cavity) and decidua capsularis (lining the gestati...
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Double line sign

The double line sign is an MRI finding seen at the periphery of a region of osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis, bone infarct). It is best seen on T2 weighted sequences and consists of an inner bright T2 line representing granulation tissue and an outer dark line representing sclerotic bone. This ...
Article

Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the ligamentum arteriosum, at the aortic isthmus. This is also the site of 90% of post-traumatic aortic injuries as the ligamentu...
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Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
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Dysphagia lusoria

Dysphagia lusoria is an impairment of swallowing due to compression from an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). Clinical presentation Most patients with aberrant right subclavian arteries do not have symptoms. Some present with mild dysphagia, while a small minority have a seve...
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Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), make up the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life in non-mosaic forms, albeit in the case of Edward syndrome only for a week or so.  Epidemiology After Down...
Article

Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), make up the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life in non-mosaic forms, albeit in the case of Edward syndrome only for a week or so.  Epidemiology After Down...
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Empty gestational sac

Empty gestational sacs can be due to a number of causes: anembryonic pregnancy (also known as "blighted ovum") early pregnancy (intrauterine): by 5.5 weeks gestational age, a yolk sac should be identifiable by transvaginal ultrasound pseudogestational sac with an ectopic pregnancy gestationa...
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Endolymphatic sac tumour

Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELST) are very rare, locally invasive tumours of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumours is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumours do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epi...
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Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogenous group of disorders that are characterised by excess infiltration of the eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis...
Article

Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.  Radiographic features Gastrointestinal manifestations: limited to the mucosa of the gastr...

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