Items tagged “cases”

3,962 results found

Funnel trachea

Funnel trachea is a colloquialism for a congenital long-segment intrathoracic tracheal stenosis.  The diameter of the trachea immediately below the cricoid is normal, and becomes progressively more stenotic caudally. The posterior, membranous portion of the trachea may be partially or completel...

Gardner syndrome

Gardner syndrome is one of the polyposis syndromes. It is characterised by: familial adenopolyposis (FAP) multiple osteomas especially of the mandible, skull and long bones epidermal cysts fibromatoses desmoid tumours of mesentery and anterior abdominal wall  Other abnormalities include: ...

String sign (bowel)

The gastrointestinal string sign (also known as string sign of Kantour) refers to the string-like appearance of a contrast-filled bowel loop caused by severe narrowing of a bowel loop. Originally used to describe the reversible narrowing caused by spasms in Crohn disease, it is now used for any...

Geniculate ganglion

The geniculate ganglion contains fibres for taste and somatic sensation and is located in the petrous temporal bone.  Gross anatomy It is located at the first genu of the facial nerve at the anterior most part of the Fallopian canal at the junction between the labyrinthine and tympanic segment...


The term germinoma usually refers to a tumour of the brain (WHO Classification of CNS tumours), but can also refer to similar tumours of the ovary and testis. dysgerminoma of the ovary seminoma of the testis CNS germinoma All three tumours share similar histology. 

Gestational sac

The gestational sac (GS) is the first sign of early pregnancy on ultrasound and can be seen with endovaginal ultrasound at approximately 3-5 weeks gestation when the mean sac diameter (MSD) would approximately measure 2-3 mm in diameter. A true gestational sac can be distinguished from a pseudo...

Glenolabral articular disruption lesions

Glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions result from a forced adduction injury. There is a superficial anterior inferior labral tear associated with an anterior inferior glenoid articular cartilage injury. These lesions do not tend to be associated with shoulder instability. It is better...

Gluteal injection site granuloma

Gluteal injection site granulomas are a very common finding on CT and plain radiographs. They occur as a result of subcutaneous (i.e. intra-lipomatous) rather than intramuscular injection of drugs, which cause localised fat necrosis, scar formation and dystrophic calcification. Once familiar wi...

Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: petrous apicitis abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...


A haemangioendothelioma is a tumour derived from blood vessels.  Pathology Sub types Sub types dependent on location include haemangioendothelioma (MSK) haemangioendothelioma of liver See also epithelioid haemangioendothelioma This article is intended to be the general article on haemagi...

Musculoskeletal haemangioendothelioma

Haemangioendotheliomas, along with haemangiopericytomas and angiosarcomas, are tumours that arise from vascular structures. In the case of haemangioendotheliomas, the cell of origin is the endothelial cell, and they range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. Epidemiology They typically oc...

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytoma

Musculoskeletal haemangiopericytomas are now considered to be a cellular and more aggressive version of solitary fibrous tumours, and the term has largely been abandoned.  Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently seen in middle-aged adults (~ 4th decade). Pathology Location Typically ...

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), previously known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder causing involuntary spasticity and progressive dementia. It is a subset of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Clinical presentation D...

Heerfordt syndrome

Heerfordt(-Waldenström) syndrome or uveoparotid fever is a variant of sarcoidosis, comprising of: fever parotid enlargement facial palsy ocular involvement (anterior uveitis) Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown, as only isolated case reports exist. Neurologic involvement may occur...


Haemangiopericytoma is a term formerly used to describe a continuum of mesenchymal tumours with elevated cellularity found throughout the body in soft tissue and bone. After many years of controversy, haemangiopericytomas have been shown to not only share histological features similar to solitar...

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a condition arising from occlusion of hepatic venules. Clinical presentation right upper quadrant pain painful hepatomegaly ascites abnormal liver function tests Pathology Toxic injury to liver s...

Lymphoma (staging)

There are a number of lymphoma staging systems for both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma including the Ann Arbor classification, Cotswolds-modified Ann Arbor classification, and the most current, Lugano classification.  Evolution of lymphoma staging and treatment response evaluation cr...


Hydrocolpos is characterised by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity. When it is associated with distention of the uterine cavity, the term hydrometrocolpos should then be used. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Aetiology imperfor...


Hydrometrocolpos is characterised by an expanded fluid filled vaginal cavity with associated distention of the uterine cavity. It may present in infancy with a lower abdominal mass, or be delayed till menarche. Pathology Aetiology imperforate hymen (most common) also involves the upper portio...

Hyperostosis frontoparietalis

Hyperostosis frontoparietalis is a variant of the more common and more well known hyperostosis frontalis interna. As the name suggests, it is merely inner table thickening of not only the frontal bones, but also extending more posteriorly into the parietal bones. This is a common incidental fin...

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