Items tagged “cases”

3,908 results found

Ducts of the salivary glands

The ducts of the salivary glands allow the passage of salivary juice from the glands to the oral cavity: parotid duct (Stenson duct): connects the parotid gland to the buccal mucosa, adjacent to maxillary second molar submandibular duct (Wharton duct): connects the submandibular gland to the f...

Duct of Rivinus

The duct of Rivinus connects the sublingual gland to the floor of the mouth. Despite its name, it is not a single duct, but numerous small ducts all of which open into the floor of the mouth and are collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these little ductules is the major duct...

Parotid duct

The parotid duct, also known as Stensen duct, drains saliva from the parotid gland into the oral cavity. It secretes primarily serous saliva. Gross anatomy The parotid duct is approximately 5cm long and passes anteriorly through the buccal fat superficial to the masseter muscle and over its an...

Submandibular gland

The submandibular glands are paired salivary glands located behind and below the ramus of the mandible in the submandibular triangle. They secrete mixed serous and mucous saliva that is excreted into the oral cavity via the submandibular duct that connects the gland to the floor of the mouth. G...

Sublingual gland

The sublingual glands are salivary glands that lie in the floor of the mouth anterior to the submandibullar glands. They secrete predominantly mucous saliva that is drained by a collection of 8-20 excretory ducts collectively termed the duct of Rivinus. The largest of these ducts, the major subl...

Head and neck anatomy

Head and neck anatomy is important when considering pathology affecting the same area. In radiology, the 'head and neck' refers to all the anatomical structures in this region excluding the central nervous system, that is, the brain and spinal cord and their associated vascular structures and en...

Pharyngeal mucosal space

The pharyngeal (or superficial) mucosal space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. It consists of the mucosa and structures deep to the mucosa of the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. Gross anatomy The pharyngeal mucosal space is the most internal comp...


The scutum is a sharp bony spur that is formed by the superior wall of the external auditory canal and the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity. It forms the lateral margin of Prussak space. Related pathology acquired cholesteatoma: it is usually the first bony structure to be eroded by the enl...

Dural enhancement

Pachymeningeal enhancement, also known as dura-arachnoid enhancement 4, refers to a dural and outer layer of arachnoid pattern of enhancement seen following contrast administration and may occur in the conditions listed below: infection intracranial tumour metastases intracranial hypotension...

Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle is one of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Its primary action is constriction of the pharynx (in coordination with the superior pharyngeal constrictor and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles) to deliver a bolus of food into the oesophagus. Sum...

Benign minor salivary gland pathology

Benign minor salivary gland pathology is a broad term that encompasses a number of relatively uncommon pathologies that affect the minor salivary glands of the head and neck: salivary retention cysts benign neoplasms pleomorphic adenoma

Perivertebral space

The perivertebral space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy The perivertebral space is a cylinder of soft tissue lying posterior to the retropharyngeal space and danger space surrounded by the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia and extends from...

Retropharyngeal space

The retropharyngeal space (also known as the true retropharyngeal space to distinguish it from the danger space, which is sometimes referred to as part of the retropharyngeal space) is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. It is a midline space that consists largely of fatty a...

Carotid space

The carotid space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck. Gross anatomy The carotid space is a roughly cylindrical space that extends from the skull base through to the aortic arch.  It is circumscribed by all three layers of the deep cervical fascia, forming the carotid sh...

Parotid space

The parotid space is one of the seven deep compartments of the head and neck and as the name suggests is mostly filled with the parotid gland. It is the most lateral major suprahyoid neck space. Gross anatomy The parotid space is a roughly pyramidal space, the broad elongated base facing later...

Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis

Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by vertical transmission of infection during passage from birth canal with diffuse cerebral involvement within the first month after birth; in contrast to adult herpes simplex encephalitis, it is commonly related to HSV-2.  Epidemiology The incide...

Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family

Although sporadic viral encephalitis is most commonly due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) the extended herpesvirus family consists of many other viruses many of which can also infect the central nervous system. Encephalitis due to herpesvirus family include 1:   herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...

Varicella zoster virus encephalitis

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis can be due to either an immune reaction to primary infection or reactivation of latent infection in cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia following childhood chickenpox.  Manifestations following primary infection include:  cerebellar ataxia meningoenc...

Adrenal pseudocyst

Adrenal pseudocysts account for ~40% of adrenal cysts and are more likely than simple adrenal cysts to be symptomatic. Pathology Pseudocysts do not have an epithelial lining and typically arise after an episode of adrenal haemorrhage. There is an ~7% association with malignancy (e.g. from haem...

Cardiac angiosarcoma

Cardiac angiosarcomas are the most common sarcoma involving the heart (see cardiac tumours).  Epidemiology and clinical presentation As these tumours tends to occur in the right atrium and involve the pericardium, patients usually present with right-sided heart failure or cardiac tamponade. Th...

Updating… Please wait.

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.