Items tagged “cases”

3,909 results found

Fetal valproate syndrome

Fetal valproate syndrome (FVS) is a potential embryopathy that can occur as a result from maternal intake of valproic acid (sodium valproate / Depakote) during pregnancy. Clinical spectrum There is a wide clinical spectrum which includes neural tube defects mental retardation craniofaci...

Giant fibroadenoma

Giant fibroadenomas are fibroadenomas weighing more than 500 grams or measuring >5 cm in size 2. They are usually encountered in pregnant or lactating women.


The pleura is an exceedingly delicate serous membrane which is arranged in the form of a closed invaginated sac that encloses the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Gross anatomy The pleura divides into: visceral pleura which covers the surface of the lung and dips into the fissures between...

Pulmonary mass

A pulmonary mass is any area of pulmonary opacification that measures more than 30 mm. The commonest cause for a pulmonary mass is lung cancer. Other causes do exist: hyperdense pulmonary mass cavitating pulmonary mass See also nodular opacification

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications, including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pulmonary embolism investigation of...

Carpenter syndrome

Carpenter syndrome, also called acrocephalopolysyndactyly type II (ACPS type II) is an extremely rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder  Clinical spectrum It is characterized by number of features which include: craniofacial malformations craniosynostoses kleeblattschädel (cloverleaf ...

Ovarian dysgerminoma

Ovarian dysgerminomas are a type of germ cell tumour of the ovary. They are the most common malignant germ cell tumours of the ovary and are thought to account for ~1% of all ovarian neoplasms 5. Epidemiology They are rare ovarian tumours that occur predominantly in young women (majority occur...

Fetal akinesia sequence

A fetal akinesia sequence (FAS) is an event that can occur with a lack of fetal movement (fetal akinesia). This results in  fetal joint contractures: arthrogryposis pulmonary hypoplasia polyhydramnios 3 craniofacial anomalies 3 micrognathia 6 Epidemiology The esimated prevalence is at ~ 1...

Potter sequence

The Potter sequence is a constellation of findings demonstrated postnatally as a consequence of severe, prolonged oligohydramnios in utero. Clinical presentation It consists of pulmonary hypoplasia: often severe and incompatible with life growth restriction (IUGR) abnormal facies (Potter fa...

Germ cell tumours of the ovary

Germ cells tumours of the ovary account for approximately 15-20% of all ovarian tumours. In children and adolescents, up to 60% of ovarian tumours can be of germ cell origin. They include: ovarian teratoma(s): commonest primary benign tumour of ovary and commonest germ cell tumour: mature (cy...

Nodular opacification

Nodular opacification is one of the broad patterns of pulmonary opacification that can be described on a chest radiograph or chest CT. The others, linear opacification and airway opacification are discussed separately. Nodular opacification in the lung may be a pulmonary nodule airspace nodul...

Peritoneal mesothelioma

Peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon primary tumour of the peritoneal lining. It shares epidemiological and pathological features with but is less common than its pleural counterpart, which is described in detail in the general article on mesothelioma. Other sub-types (also discussed separatel...

Airspace nodules

Airspace nodules are irregularly marginated nodular opacities with air bronchograms that tend to measure 8 mm in diameter. They are quite separate from pulmonary nodules that range in size, are homogeneous and well-defined (being surrounded by normal lung).

Primary peritoneal neoplasms

Primary peritoneal neoplasms comprise of an uncommon group of heterogenous entities. The list includes mesothelial derivatives primary (malignant) peritoneal mesothelioma primary perioneal multicystic mesothelioma primary peritoneal well differentiated papillary mesothelioma primary perito...

Pulmonary interstitium

Pulmonary interstitium is a collection of support tissues within the lung that includes the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. The pulmonary interstitium can be divided into three zones - axial, parenchymal and periph...

Reticular and linear pulmonary opacification

In chest radiology, reticular and linear opacification refers to a broad sub-group of pulmonary opacification caused by a decrease in the gas to soft tissue ratio due to a pathological process centred in or around the pulmonary interstitium. This includes thickening of any of the interstitial co...

Placental insufficiency

Placental insufficiency is a term given to a situation where the placenta cannot bring enough oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Clinical presentation Fetuses may present with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) (especially asymmetrical IUGR). Pathology It can be primarily caused...

Asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction

Asymmetrical intrauterine growth restriction is a type of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) where some fetal biometric parameters are disproportionately lower than others, as well as falling under the 10th percentile. The parameter classically affected is the abdominal circumference (AC). ...

Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly defined as an estimated fetal weight (EFW) at one point in time during pregnancy being at or below the 10th percentile for gestational age 2. Some authors define the term IUGR when fetal biometric parameters fall under the 5th percentile or fal...

Andersson lesion

Andersson lesions refer to an inflammatory involvement of the intervertebral discs by spondyloarthritis. Epidemiology Rheumatic spondylodiscitis is a non-infectious condition that has been shown to occur in about 8% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, as detected at radiography. Patholog...

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