Items tagged “cases”

3,962 results found

Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome, also known as congenital facial diplegia syndrome, is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence or underdevelopment of the abducens nerve (CN VI) and facial nerve (CN VII) nuclei. Epidemiology Möbius syndrome is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1 case per 10...

Nerve to stapedius

The nerve to stapedius arises from the facial nerve to supply the stapedius muscle. The branch is given off in the facial nerve's mastoid segment, as it passes posterior to the pyramidal process. Damage to this branch with resulting paralysis of stapedius leads to hypersensitivity to loud noise...

Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is a finding during a specific period in the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks) and should not be confused with the nuchal thickness, which is measured in the second trimester. Pathology Increased nuchal translucency is thought to be related t...

Nuchal fold thickness

Nuchal fold thickness is a parameter that is measured in a second-trimester scan (at ~18-22 weeks) and should not be confused with nuchal translucency (which is measured in the first trimester). Pathology The proposed aetiology of increased nuchal thickness is the result of congenital heart di...

Oculomotor nerve palsy

An oculomotor nerve palsy results in weakness of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae, leading to an eye that is "down and out". Pathology It has numerous possible aetiologies which can be divided according to which portion of the nerve i...

Odontogenic myxoma

Odontogenic myxomas are rare tumours that involve the mandible or maxilla and account for 3-6% of odontogenic tumours 2. Epidemiology Typically seen in the 2nd to 3rd decades of life (slightly earlier than ameloblastomas). They are usually not painful. Pathology Arises from mesenchymal odont...


Odontomas are one of the most common of mandibular lesions encountered and the most common odontogenic tumours of the mandible. They account for up to two-thirds of all such tumours; the next most common are ameloblastomas, making up the majority of the remaining one-third. Epidemiology They c...

Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...

Orbital pseudotumour

Orbital pseudotumour is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and retrobulbar soft tissues. The exact aetiology is not known but an association with many inf...

Os supratalare

An os supratalare is an accessory ossicle of the foot located at the superior aspect of the talar head or neck. It has a reported incidence of ~1% (range 0.2-2.4%) 1. It is almost always asymptomatic.  Differential diagnosis os supranaviculare is also anatomically seen in close proximity to th...

Osteochondral injury staging

Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. stage I injury limited to articular cartilage MRI findings: subchondral oedema x-ray findings: none stage II cartilage injury with associated sub...


Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction

Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture) A: alcohol abuse R: radiation S: sickle cell dise...

Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...


Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis

Trecheobronchial papillomatosis refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving trachea and bronchi. It is the most common benign tumour in laryngo-tracheal region. Multiple papillomas can occur at other sites which have distinctive terms. Examples include: juvenile pap...

Parsonage-Turner syndrome

Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an acute idiopathic brachial neuritis. Epidemiology There is male predominance (M:F 2:1 to 11.5:1) 1. Patients from 3 months to 85 years old have been reported, but the majority are between 3rd to 7th decade of life. Clinical presentation The presentation is typi...

Patau syndrome

Patau syndrome (also known as trisomy 13) is considered the 3rd commonest autosomal trisomy. This along with Down syndrome (T21) and Edward syndrome (T18) are the only three trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life. However, few infants live more than a few days.  Epidemiology The es...

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