Items tagged “cases”

4,743 results found

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an inherited condition which predisposes to a host of malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. It is considered the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer. Diagnosis requires evaluation using cl...

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple...

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterised by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...

Maffucci syndrome

Maffucci syndrome is a congenital nonhereditary mesodermal dysplasia characterised by multiple enchondromas with soft-tissue venous malformations (haemangiomas). On imaging, it is usually portrayed by a short limb with metaphyseal distortions due to multiple enchondromas, which may appear grote...

Malignant vascular tumours

Malignant vascular tumours are rare, accounting for <1% of all sarcomas.  Pathology intermediate grade haemangioendothelioma Kaposi sarcoma high grade haemangiopericytoma angiosarcoma


The malleus is the most lateral middle ear ossicle, located between the tympanic membrane and the incus. Gross anatomy The malleus has a head, neck, and three distinct processes (manubrium (handle), anterior and lateral processes). The head is oval in shape, and articulates posteriorly with t...


Mastitis refers to inflammation of the breast parenchyma, of which there are a number of subtypes: acute mastitis puerperal mastitis: occurs usually from infection with Staphylococcus during lactation non-puerperal mastitis: not related to lactation, and occurs usually in older women plasma ...

Mean sac diameter

Mean sac diameter (MSD) is a sonographic measurement of the gestational sac which is usually first seen at around 3 weeks after conception (5 weeks after the last menstrual period), when it measures 2-3 mm. MSD = (length + height + width)/3 Normal MSD (in mm) + 30 = days of pregnancy Role of ...


Megalencephaly (MEG) is a disorder characterised by an abnormally large brain. It is primarily a proliferative disorder of embryonic origin. It may involve all or part of the cerebral hemispheres and can be bilateral or unilateral. It is often associated with polymicrogyria or agyria.  Terminol...

Middle ear effusion

Middle ear effusions are frequent in children due to prominent adenoids and horizontal Eustachian tubes. These do not require imaging, and can be treated expectantly / medically / surgically with gromits. Eustachian tube dysfunction is the accepted aetiology, with resorption of air and extravasa...

Middle ear granulation tissue

Development of granulation tissue in the middle ear cavity is a generalised response to injury/inflammation, chronic otomastoiditis. It can either be typical or go down the pathway of becoming a cholesterol granuloma. Radiographic features Typical granulation tissue is common, more so than cho...

Middle ear tumours

There are a range of middle ear tumours, which are more likely to be benign than malignant.  Pathology The three most common middle ear tumours are (not in any particular order as there are differences in the literature) 1-3:  glomus tympanicum paraganglioma congenital cholesteatoma middle ...

Middle lobe bronchiectasis

Distribution of bronchiectasis can help in narrowing the differential diagnosis. Middle lobe bronchiectasis is typically seen in: non tuberculous mycobacterial infections MAIC middle lobe syndrome in children See also central bronchiectasis upper lobe bronchiectasis lower...

Milwaukee shoulder

Milwaukee shoulder refers to a destructive shoulder arthropathy due to deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals, and identification of these crystals in synovial fluid is the cornerstone of diagnosis. Epidemiology Milwaukee shoulder frequently affects older women, often with a history of trauma t...


A miscarriage is the spontaneous termination of a pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation.  Terminology The term miscarriage is preferred by many over 'abortion' due to the use of the latter for therapeutic pregnancy termination, and the perceived stigma attributed to it by some. Terminology vari...

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is characterised by calcific deposits within the media of medium and small muscular arteries that do not cause luminal narrowing. The calcification is typically diffuse and circumferential along the vessel and is readily visible on plain film. Vascular calcif...

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) also known as lipoid dermatoarthritis, is a rare systemic disorder. Pathology MRH is considered a form of granulomatous disease 10 characterised by infiltration of multinucleated histiocytes into various tissues, primarily affecting skin and synovium, w...

Muscles of the tongue

The muscles of the tongue are divided into 2 groups each comprising 4 muscles. They are classified as intrinsic (to the tongue) and extrinsic muscles. They allow for the complex movements of the tongue and are all innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) except one:​ intrinsic muscles of th...

Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome, also known as congenital facial diplegia syndrome, is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence or underdevelopment of the abducens nerve (CN VI) and facial nerve (CN VII) nuclei. Epidemiology Möbius syndrome is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1 case per 10...

Nerve to stapedius

The nerve to stapedius arises from the facial nerve to supply the stapedius muscle. The branch is given off in the facial nerve's mastoid segment, as it passes posterior to the pyramidal process. Damage to this branch with resulting paralysis of stapedius leads to hypersensitivity to loud noise...

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