Items tagged “cases”

4,576 results found
Article

Nerve to stapedius

The nerve to stapedius arises from the facial nerve to supply the stapedius muscle. The branch is given off in the facial nerve's mastoid segment, as it passes posterior to the pyramidal process. Damage to this branch with resulting paralysis of stapedius leads to hypersensitivity to loud noise...
Article

Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is a finding during a specific period in the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks) and should not be confused with the nuchal thickness, which is measured in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased nuchal translucency is thought to be related...
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is a finding during a specific period in the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks) and should not be confused with the nuchal thickness, which is measured in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased nuchal translucency is thought to be related...
Article

Nuchal fold thickness

Nuchal fold thickness is a parameter that is measured on an obstetric second-trimester scan (at ~18-22 weeks) and should not be confused with nuchal translucency (which is measured in the first trimester).  Pathology The proposed aetiology of increased nuchal thickness is the result of hydrops...
Article

Oculomotor nerve palsy

An oculomotor nerve palsy results in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. This leads clinically to an eye that is "down and out". Pathology It has numero...
Article

Oculomotor nerve palsy

An oculomotor nerve palsy results in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. This leads clinically to an eye that is "down and out". Pathology It has numero...
Article

Odontogenic myxoma

Odontogenic myxomas are rare tumours that involve the mandible or maxilla and account for 3-6% of odontogenic tumours 2. Epidemiology Typically seen in the 2nd to 3rd decades of life (slightly earlier than ameloblastomas). They are usually not painful. Pathology Arises from mesenchymal odont...
Article

Odontoma

Odontomas are one of the most common of mandibular lesions encountered and the most common odontogenic tumours of the mandible. They account for up to two-thirds of all such tumours; the next most common are ameloblastomas, making up the majority of the remaining one-third. Epidemiology They c...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Os supratalare

An os supratalare is an accessory ossicle of the foot located at the superior aspect of the talar head or neck. It has a reported incidence of ~1% (range 0.2-2.4%) 1. It is almost always asymptomatic.  Differential diagnosis os supranaviculare is also anatomically seen in close proximity to th...
Article

Osteochondral injury staging

Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. stage I injury limited to articular cartilage MRI findings: subchondral oedema x-ray findings: none stage II cartilage injury with associated sub...
Article

Otomastoiditis

Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
Article

Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture) A: alcohol abuse R: radiation S: sickle cell dise...
Article

Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...

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