Items tagged “cases”

3,909 results found

Fetal parvovirus B19 infection

Fetal parvovirus B19 infection is a type of in utero infection. In certain cases it can lead to intra-uterine fetal death.  Pathology  It was first reported to be associated with fetal death and hydrops fetalis in 1984. Human parvovirus B19 is the only known parovirus virus pathogenic to human...

Acardiac twin

Acardiac twins (or recipient twins) are haemodynamically disadvantaged non-viable twins that undergo secondary atrophy in association with a twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Epidemiology Acardiac twinning is thought to affect 1 in 100 monozygotic twin pregnancies and 1 in 35,000 preg...

Twin reversed arterial perfusion

Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is considered a severe variant of the twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). The hallmark of this condition which only happens in monochorionic pregnancies is the lack of placental perfusion of one of the twins (so called acardiac twin), with a...

Twin growth discordance

In obstetric imaging, twin growth discordance refers to a significant size or weight difference between the two fetuses of a twin pregnancy. To be classified as a growth discordance, some consider that the estimated fetal weight (EFW) of the smaller twin should fall under the 10th centile. Epid...

Dizygotic twin pregnancy

A dizygotic (DZ) twin pregnancy is a type of twin pregnancy where two seperate ova are independantly fertilised by two seperate sperm resulting the two seperate zygotes. These twins are known as fraternal twins. They may or may not be of the same gender.  Epidemiology Dizygotic twins are the m...

Lemon sign (cerebellum)

The lemon sign, noted on antenatal imaging, is one of the many notable fruit inspired signs. It is a feature when there appears to be an indentation of the frontal bone (depicting that of a lemon). It is classically seen as a sign of a Chiari II malformation and also seen in the majority (90-98%...

Roberts syndrome

Roberts Syndrome (RBS) (also known as Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome, pseudothalidomide syndrome, Appelt-Gerken-Lenz syndrome) is rare congenital malformation syndrome. It has an autosomal recessive inheritance. Clinical features general intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) post-natal grow...


The term micrognathia essentially means a small mandible. Pathology A small mandible occurs secondary to abnormalities of the first branchial arch which in turn are caused by deficient or insufficient migration of neural crest cells and usually occur around the 4th week of gestation. Associat...

Long umbilical cord

A long umbilical cord has been variably defined. Considering the mean length of the umbilical cord at ~50-70 cm 1, a long cord in absolute terms is usually taken as one that is over 70 cm in length at term 1-3.  Complications increased incidence of umbilical cord knots increased incidence of ...

Umbilical cord entanglement

Umbilical cord entanglement is a feature which can mean either one of more loops of cord being encircled around any part of the any part of body 3 or two umbilical cord getting entangled with each other. In the latter situation it is a classical feature of a monochorionic-monoamniotic twin pregn...

Nuchal cord

A nuchal cord (NC) is a term given to situation where there are one or more loops of umbilical cord wrapped around the fetal neck for ≥360°. Epidemiology The prevalence is dependent on the extent of coiling and range from ~25% for a single loop to 2.5% for a double loop to ~0.5% for more than ...

Congenital high airways obstruction syndrome

Congenital high airways obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) refers a rare, often lethal, congenital laryngotracheal condition and is primarily characterised by obstruction to the fetal upper airway. Pathology CHAOS can be of three possible types 2: complete laryngeal atresia without an oesophageal f...

Fraser syndrome

Fraser syndrome is an extremely rare congenital syndromic anomaly.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at around 0.04:10,000 live-born infants and 1:10,000 stillbirths. Clinical spectrum The syndromic spectrum can comprises of: cryptophthalmos syndactyly: often cutaneous tracheal atr...

Post dates fetus

Post dates fetus is when there is prolonged gestation when the fetus remains in-utero beyond 2 weeks beyond expected date of delivery (>42 weeks gestation). Epidemiology The reported frequency is at approximately 3-12% of pregnancies. Pathology Associations maternal obesity Complications ...

Placenta accreta

Placenta accreta (PA) is both the general term applied to the abnormal placental adherence and also the condition seen at the milder end of the spectrum of abnormal placental adherence. This article focuses on the second, more specific definition. In a placenta accreta, the placental villi exte...

Placental chorioangioma

Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours of placental origin. It is the most common tumour of the placenta and is usually found incidentally. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1% of all pregnancies 3. Clinical presentation In most cases, chorioangiomas are asymptomatic,...

Placental venous lakes

Placental venous lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, b...

Fetal anaemia

Fetal anaemia can result from many causes. Pathology Aetiology haemolytic disease of the newborn fetomaternal ABO incompatibility fetomaternal rhesus (Rh) incompatibility fetal infections fetal parvovirus B19 infection haematopoetic abnomalities homozygous alpha thalassaemia 7 syndrome...

Endometrial atrophy

Endometrial atrophy is a response to a hypo-oestrogenic state. If it occurs after menopause it can be more specifically termed postmenopausal endometrial atrophy.  Clinical presentation While most patients are asymptomatic, endometrial atrophy is one of the commonest cause of postmenopausal bl...

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia refers to an increased proliferation of the endometrial glands relative to the stroma. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to the endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of a...

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