Items tagged “cases”

4,743 results found
Article

Nottingham classification

The Nottingham classification is used at the end of work up of a breast lesion to help guide management. A = malignant lesion needs surgical excision regardless of biopsy result B = indeterminate will accept a benign biopsy result, but only if it is congruent with imaging, i.e. a well circum...
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Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is the normal fluid-filled subcutaneous space identified at the back of the fetal neck during the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks). It should not be confused with the nuchal fold, which is seen in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased...
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is the normal fluid-filled subcutaneous space identified at the back of the fetal neck during the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks). It should not be confused with the nuchal fold, which is seen in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased...
Article

Nuchal fold

The nuchal fold is a normal fold of skin seen at the back of the fetal neck during the second trimester of pregnancy. Increased thickness of the nuchal fold is a soft marker associated with multiple fetal anomalies, and is measured on a routine second trimester ultrasound.  Terminology It shou...
Article

Oculomotor nerve palsy

Oculomotor nerve palsies, or third nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with...
Article

Oculomotor nerve palsy

Oculomotor nerve palsies, or third nerve palsies, result in weakness of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve, namely the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with...
Article

Odontogenic myxoma

Odontogenic myxomas are rare tumours that involve the mandible or maxilla and account for 3-6% of odontogenic tumours 2. Epidemiology Typically seen in the 2nd to 3rd decades of life (slightly earlier than ameloblastomas). They are usually not painful. Pathology Arises from mesenchymal odont...
Article

Odontoma

Odontomas are one of the most common of mandibular lesions encountered and the most common odontogenic tumours of the mandible. They account for up to two-thirds of all such tumours; the next most common are ameloblastomas, making up the majority of the remaining one-third. Epidemiology They c...
Article

Oesophageal cancer (staging)

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Idiopathic orbital inflammation

Idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI), also known as orbital pseudotumour and nonspecific orbital inflammation, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that most commonly involves the extraocular muscles. Less commonly there is inflammatory change involving the uvea, sclera, lacrimal gland, and ...
Article

Osteochondral injury staging

Osteochondral injury staging system for MRI attempts to grade the stability and severity of osteochondral injury and is used to plan management. stage I injury limited to articular cartilage MRI findings: subchondral oedema x-ray findings: none stage II cartilage injury with associated sub...
Article

Otomastoiditis

Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
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Avascular necrosis causes (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the causes of avascular necrosis (AVN) or more correctly osteonecrosis: STARS PLASTIC RAGS ASEPTIC Mnemonics STARS Most common causes: S: steroids T: trauma (e.g. femoral neck fracture, hip dislocation, scaphoid fracture, slipped capital femoral epiphysis 2) A: alcohol abu...
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Paget-Schrötter syndrome

Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome. Epidemiology It is associated with forced...
Article

Pancreatoblastoma

Pancreatoblastomas are rare paediatric tumours of the pancreas. However, they are the most common pancreatic neoplasm of childhood and are often associated with a raised alpha-fetoprotein. Epidemiology There is slight male predilection. Usually occurs in the first decade of life with a mean ag...
Article

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving trachea and bronchi. It is an unusual manifestation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), itself a rare condition where HPV-associated papilloma form along the aerodigestive tract 8. ...
Article

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis

Tracheobronchial papillomatosis refers to the occurrence of multiple squamous cell papillomas involving trachea and bronchi. It is an unusual manifestation of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), itself a rare condition where HPV-associated papilloma form along the aerodigestive tract 8. ...

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