Items tagged “cases”

3,963 results found

Pear-shaped bladder

Pear-shaped (or tear-drop-shaped) bladder is one whose normal round or ovoid shape has been extrinsically compressed to resemble a pear. The pear may be inverted or upright, depending on how the excess pelvic tissue compresses the bladder. Pathology Aetiology Causes of a pear-shaped bladder i...

Penumbra sign (bones)

The penumbra sign represents a rim of vascularized granulation tissue around a bone abscess cavity that has a higher T1 signal intensity than the cavity itself 1.  It should not be confused with the ischaemic penumbra of cerebral infarction.  The penumbra is isointense to muscle on T1, enhance...

Piriformis syndrome

The piriformis syndrome (PS) refers to a rare entrapment neuropathy resulting in radicular pain radiating into the buttock and hamstrings. The entity is controversial as are the putative causes. Clinical presentation Sciatic pain reproduced on passive internal rotation/adduction of a flexed hi...


Pituicytomas are rare indolent glial tumours presumably arising from pituicytes and only found in the neurohypophysis and infundibulum of the pituitary gland. Terminology There is much confusion in the literature as to what exactly a pituicytoma is, with the term used to synonymously particula...

Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in: tumours germinoma hypothalamic glioma CNS lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (a.k.a. pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (a.k.a. infundibuloma) pituitary metastases...

Pleural mouse

A pleural mouse (also known as a fibrin body), is a 1-2 cm mobile rounded clump of fibrin left over after resolution of a pleural effusion.

Pneumatised dorsum sella

Pneumatisation of the dorsum sella is not uncommon, but needs to be remembered as an unusual site of sinus disease, which otherwise may be mistaken for intracranial of pituitary disease.

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterised by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...

Polyposis syndromes

The polyposis syndromes are disorders in which more than 100 gastrointestinal polyps are present throughout the GI tract: hereditary hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAPS) classic FAP attenuated FAP Gardner syndrome  Turcot syndrome Bann...

Portosystemic collateral pathways

Portosystemic collateral pathways (also called varices) develop spontaneously via dilatation of pre-existing anastomoses between the portal and systemic venous systems. This facilitates shunting of blood away from the liver into the systemic venous system in portal hypertension, as a means for r...

Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...

Posterosuperior impingement of the shoulder

Posterosuperior impingement, also known as internal impingement, is a relatively uncommon form of shoulder impingement primarily involving the infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. Clinical presentation Patients present with posterior shoulder pain and instability. It al...

Pregnancy-related avascular necrosis

Pregnancy-related avascular necrosis is a common cause of femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN). Since the femoral head is deficient in blood supply, it is particularly vulnerable for AVN. The pathophysiology is thought to be due to venous stasis and increased intramedullary pressure. Radiograph...

Prune belly syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as Eagle Barrett syndrome 3 or triad syndrome, is a rare anomaly comprising a specific constellation of features. It consists of three major findings: gross ureteric dilatation anterior abdominal wall underdevelopment (resulting in the "prune belly" appearance)...

Pseudogestational sac

A pseudogestational sac or pseudosac is the concept that a small amount of intrauterine fluid in the setting of a positive pregnancy test and abdominal pain could be erroneously interpreted as a true gestational sac in ectopic pregnancy. The sign was originally reported before the use of endova...

Pulmonary artery stenosis types

A pulmonary arterial stenosis can be classified into several types 1,2: type I: involving main pulmonary artery type II: involving bifurcation type III: multiple peripheral stenoses type IV: central and peripheral stenoses See also congenital pulmonary stenosis

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) refers to the abnormal location of air within the pulmonary interstitium and lymphatics. It typically results from rupture of overdistended alveoli following barotrauma in infants who have hyaline membrane disease. Interstitial emphysema can also occasional...


A pyometrium refers to infection of the endometrial cavity with resulting expansion due to accumulated pus. Pathology Causes endometritis / pelvic inflammatory disease uterine malignacies pelvic irradiation cervical stenosis retained products of conception imperforate hymen colo-uterin...

Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RMS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is essentially shingles of the facial nerve. Latent infection is present in the geniculate ganglion with painful vesicles showing in the external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane and pinna associated with facial palsy. There may b...

Osteosclerosis causes (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the causes of osteosclerosis is: Regular Sex Makes Occasional Perversions Much More Pleasurable And Fantastic Mnemonic R: renal osteodystrophy S: sickle cell disease M: myelofibrosis O: osteopetrosis P: pyknodysostosis M: metastases M: mastocytosis P: Paget disease A: a...

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