Items tagged “chest x-ray”

66 results found
Article

Azygo-oesophageal recess deviation

The azygoesophageal recess (AER) is formed by the interface between the right lung and the mediastinal reflection of the azygos vein oesphagus. The line has a variable appearance: in its upper third, it deviates to the right, where it may either be straight or concave relative to the right ...
Article

Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
Article

Normal contours of the cardiomediastinum on chest radiography

A detailed understanding of the structures that make up the normal contours of the heart and mediastinum (cardiomediastinal contour) on chest radiography is essential if abnormalities are to be detected.  Frontal view (PA/AP) Right cardiomediastinal contour From superior to inferior: right p...
Article

Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumours - see mediastinal germ cell tumours Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a si...
Article

Normal position of diaphragms on chest radiography

As a result of the heart and sub-diaphragmatic organs, the hemidiaphragms are not at the same level on frontal erect inspiratory chest radiographs, but are usually within one rib intercostal space height (~2 cm) of each other. The left hemidiaphragm is usually lower than the right.  If the left...
Article

Flattening of the diaphragm

Flattening of the diaphragm is the most sensitive sign on chest radiographs for the presence of hyperinflation of the lungs, usually due to emphysema 1-2. The normal dome of each hemidiaphragm should rise at least 1.5 cm above a line connecting the costophrenic angle posteriorly and sternophren...
Article

Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial enlargement. Pathology Causes Enlargement of the right atrium can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hypertension cor pul...
Article

Right ventricular enlargement

Right ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of conditions, including: pulmonary valve stenosis pulmonary arterial hypertension atrial septal defect (ASD)  ventricular septal defect (VSD) tricuspid regurgitation dilated cardiomyopathy anomalous pulmonary venous drainage te...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Pathology Broadly speaking, the causes of left atrial enlargement can be divided into congenital ...
Article

Adult chest radiograph in the exam setting

A chest radiograph in the exam setting may contain a vast variety of pathology. However, consider the history and correlate the likely diagnoses that may be demonstrated on film. Furthermore, check your review areas to ensure that the abnormality isn't at the corner of the film. Locating pathol...
Article

Chest radiograph zones

The chest radiograph zones are useful when describing the location of pathology on a frontal chest radiograph. The chest radiograph is a 2D representation of a 3D structure. Since the interfaces between the lobes are orientated obliquely, it is often not possible to determine which lobe patholo...
Article

Right paratracheal stripe

The right paratracheal stripe is a normal finding on the frontal chest x-ray and represents the right tracheal wall, adjacent pleural surfaces and any mediastinal fat between them. It is visible because of the silhouette sign created by air within the trachea medially and air within the lung lat...
Article

Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognise on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1, 2: anterior junct...
Article

Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (CXR) is the most ubiquitous radiological investigation. Indications The chest radiograph is performed for a broad content of indications, including but not limited to 1-4: respiratory disease cardiac disease haemoptysis   suspected pulmonary embolism investigation of...
Article

Cardiothoracic ratio

The cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) aids in the detection of enlargement of the cardiac silhouette, which is most commonly from cardiomegaly but can be due to other processes such as pericardial effusion.  Radiographic features The CTR is measured on a PA chest x-ray, and is the ratio of maximal ho...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse

Left upper lobe collapse has distinctive features but can be challenging to identify on chest radiographs by the uninitiated. For a general discussion refer to the article on lobar collapse. Radiographic features Plain radiograph The left upper lobe collapses anteriorly becoming a thin sheet...
Case

Right upper lobe pneumonia

PA
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Roberto Schubert
Published 15 Dec 2011
47% complete
X-ray
Case

Right upper lobe dystelectasis

PA
 Diagnosis probable
Dr Roberto Schubert
Published 15 Dec 2011
25% complete
X-ray
Case

Middle lobe pneumonia

PA
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Roberto Schubert
Published 15 Dec 2011
50% complete
X-ray
Case

Middle lobe pneumonia

PA
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Roberto Schubert
Published 15 Dec 2011
50% complete
X-ray

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.