Items tagged “chest”

20 results found
Article

Aberrant right subclavian artery

Aberrant right subclavian arteries (ARSA), also known as arteria lusoria, are the commonest of the aortic arch anomalies 2.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 0.5-2%. Clinical presentation They are often asymptomatic, but around 10% of people may complain of tracheo-esophageal symptoms...
Article

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch

Variant anatomy of the aortic arch occurs when there is failure of normal aortic development. It results in a number of heterogenous anomalies of the aorta and its branch vessels. Gross anatomy Normally, the aorta ascends in the superior mediastinum to the level of the sternal notch before arc...
Article

Golden S-sign (lung lobe collapse)

The Golden S-sign is seen on both PA chest radiographs and on CT scans. It is named because this sign resembles a reverse S shape, and is therefore sometimes referred to as the reverse S-sign of Golden. Although typically seen with right upper lobe collapse, the S-sign can also be seen with the...
Article

Askin tumor

The original description of the Askin tumor (by Askin and Rosai in 1979 1), and many studies following it have led to a great deal of confusion. Until recently it has been considered a separate entity or as a type of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, usually of the chest wall. Recent ...
Article

Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals from mixture of calcium magnesium, iron, and sodium exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, particularly their resistance to heat and burning. They all form thin elongated fibrous crystals, and can be manufact...
Article

Left ventricular enlargement

Left ventricular enlargement can be the result of a number of condition, including: pressure overload hypertension aortic stenosis volume overload aortic regurgitation mitral regurgitation wall abnormalities left ventricular aneurysm hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Radiographic features P...
Article

Right paratracheal stripe

The right paratracheal stripe is a normal finding on the frontal chest x-ray and represents the right tracheal wall, adjacent pleural surfaces and any mediastinal fat between them. It is visible because of the silhouette sign created by air within the trachea medially and air within the lung lat...
Article

Chest x-ray lines and stripes

Chest x-ray lines and stripes are important to recognize on chest radiographs.  Lines are usually less than 1 mm in width and are comprised of tissue outlined on either side by air and typically represent pleural-covered structures within the middle and superior mediastinum 1,2: anterior junct...
Article

Retrosternal airspace

The retrosternal airspace is seen as a normal lucency between the posterior aspect of the sternum and anterior aspect of the ascending aorta on lateral chest radiographs. This space normally measures less than 2.5 cm in width. Increased retrosternal airspace is a sign of pulmonary emphysema, whi...
Article

Cardiophrenic angle lesions

The cardiophrenic space is usually filled with fat. However, lesions originating above or lower to the diaphragm can present as cardiophrenic angle lesions. The more common lesions encountered include: pericardial fat pad pericardial cyst pericardial fat necrosis Morgagni's hernia lymphade...
Article

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the lung

Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the lung is a putative precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma of the lung. This entity replaces part of a spectrum of the former bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). Pathology AAHs are localized small cell proliferation, usually measuring ≤0.5 cm, of mildly to...
Article

Posterior junction line

The posterior junction (or junctional) line is formed by the apposition of the pleural surfaces of the posteromedial surfaces of the upper lobes of the lungs, posteriorly to the esophagus but anterior to the thoracic spine (usually T3-T5) 1,2. There are many causes for an abnormal appearance of...
Article

Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain AP chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enlar...
Article

Pneumomediastinum (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pneumomediastinum describes air/gas within the mediastinum and is readily demonstrated on CT and may be seen on a chest radiograph. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pneumomediastinu...
Article

Endobronchial metastases (mnemonic)

Primary neoplasms which may result in endobronchial metastases may be memorized by utilizing the following mnemonic: Kiss My RBC 1  Mnemonic K: Kaposi sarcoma M: melanoma R: renal cell carcinoma B: breast cancer C: colorectal carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, carcinoid See also endobronchi...
Article

Pulmonary embolism (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Pulmonary embolism refers to occlusion of the pulmonary arteries or its branches, usually via venous thrombus. Reference article This is a summary article; read more in our article on pulmonary embolism. Summary epidemi...
Article

Lung cancer (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and non-radiologists Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and refers to malignancy originating in the airways or pulmonary parenchyma. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic until locally advanced or metastatic disease. The m...
Article

Chest x-ray: ABCDE (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray review is a key competency for medical students, junior doctors and other allied health professionals. Using A, B, C, D, E is a helpful and systematic method for chest x-ray review: A: airways B: breathing (th...
Article

Chest x-ray: lines and tubes (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Chest x-ray lines and tubes can be easily assessed and should be the first thing that you look at when reviewing a chest x-ray. Assessment of their position is important, but they also give you an idea about how sick the pa...
Article

Thoracic spine sign (ultrasound)

The thoracic spine sign on lung ultrasound is an indirect indicator of the presence of a pleural effusion or hemothorax. It represents the visualization of the vertebral bodies in the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm which are usually not seen unless there is a fluid collection.  Radiographi...

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