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Items tagged “clinical sign”

11 results found

Guttman test (larynx)

The Guttman test is a clinical test relating to the function of the larynx. In normal subjects, frontal pressure on the thyroid cartilage lowers the tone of voice produced and lateral pressure produces a higher tone of voice. The opposite is true with paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle.

Hennebert sign (inner ear)

The Hennebert sign describes a positive fistula test without clinical evidence of middle ear or mastoid disease. It is associated with congenital syphilis and may also be present in Ménière disease. It has been postulated that the vestibular stimulation is mediated by fibrous bands between foot...

Raccoon eyes sign (base of skull fracture)

Raccoon eyes sign (or panda eyes in the UK and Ireland) refers to periorbital ecchymosis with sparing of the tarsal plate 3 and is a physical examination finding indicative of a base of skull fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. However it is not pathognomonic for trauma, and there are sever...

Sunset eye sign

The sunset eye sign (also known as the setting sun phenomenon) is a clinical phenomenon encountered in infants and young children with raised intracranial pressure (seen in up to 40% of children with obstructive hydrocephalus and 13% of children with shunt dysfunction 1).  It consists of an up-...

Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson pupil is usually bilateral and presents as bilaterally miotic and irregular pupils, which constrict briskly with accommodation but do not react to bright light therefore displaying light-near dissociation 1.  It is a highly specific sign of late neurosyphilis, however can also ...

Adie pupil

Adie pupil (also known as tonic pupil) is caused by idiopathic degeneration of the ciliary ganglion, which sometimes occurs following a viral or bacterial illness. It is usually unilateral and typically affects young females 1. Adie pupil represents a large dilated "tonic pupil", which does not...

Battle sign (base of skull fracture)

Battle sign is an eponymous term given to mastoid ecchymosis (bruising of the scalp overlying the mastoid process) and is strongly suggestive of a base of skull fracture, most commonly a petrous temporal bone fracture.  History and etymology Mr William Henry Battle (1855-1936) was an English s...


Lagophthalmos refers to the inability of an individual to completely close the eyelids and can result in drying of the eyes and irritation, and even permanent damage. Pathology Etiology most common in facial nerve palsies (e.g. Bell palsy)  trauma/surgery: scarring of the eyelids 1 (cicatric...


Meningism refers to a classical constellation of symptoms and signs associated with irritation of the meninges. It is most commonly associated with bacterial meningitis but can also be attributed to intracranial hemorrhage and raised intracranial pressure, or other pathologies 1. Clinical prese...


Sclerodactyly refers to fibrotic tightening and thickening of the skin, with atrophy of the soft tissues, of fingers and toes. Pathology Etiology scleroderma: seen in ~25%  CREST syndrome: seen in ~5% mixed connective tissue disease History and etymology Sclerodactyly is derived from the ...

Grey Turner sign

The Grey Turner sign refers to the clinical finding of atraumatic flank ecchymosis, which is occasionally associated with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, classically due to hemorrhagic pancreatitis 2. It is thought to occur when blood extravasates from the posterior pararenal space and crosses throu...

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