Items tagged “colon”

27 results found
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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%.  Epidemiology ...
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Discrete colonic ulceration

Discrete colonic ulcerations are nonspecific findings, and can be due to: Crohn disease infective colitis Yersinia entercolitis shigellosis tuberculosis cytomegalovirus (CMV) amoebic colitis vasculitic colitis Behcet disease
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Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self-limiting ischemic/inflammatory process involving appendix epiploica of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is grou...
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Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

The Hinchey classification for acute diverticulitis (anywhere along the bowel, not just the colon) has been variously adapted and modified since its original description, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity 3,5,6.  Adoption and utility of the va...
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Hirschsprung disease

Hirschsprung disease is the most common cause of neonatal colonic obstruction (15-20%). It is commonly characterized by a short segment of colonic aganglionosis affecting term neonates, especially boys.  Epidemiology Hirschsprung disease affects approximately 1:5000-8000 live births. In short ...
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Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
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Transverse colon

The transverse colon is the longest and most mobile part of the large intestine. It measures up to 45 cm in length.  Gross anatomy The transverse colon is the continuation of the ascending colon from the right colic flexure. It passes from the right to left hypochondrium in a downward convex p...
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Colonic diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulosis (plural diverticuloses) refers to the presence of multiple diverticula. It is quite distinct from diverticulitis which describes inflammation and infection of one or multiple diverticula. Epidemiology Diverticulosis is very common in westernised countries and is typicall...
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Large bowel obstruction

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Epidemiology Large bowel obstructions are far less common than small bowel obstructions, accounting for only...
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Clostridioides difficile colitis

Clostridioides difficile colitis, also known as pseudomembranous colitis and previously known as Clostridium difficile colitis 10, is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and increasingly encountered in sick hospitalized patients. If undiagnosed and untreated, it continues to have h...
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Antibiotic-associated diarrhea

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea can be broadly divided into two groups: Clostridioides difficile colitis non-specific diarrhea The former is a life-threatening condition, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment whereas the later is milder and self-limiting.  Both result from changes in the b...
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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that not only predominantly affects the colon, but also has extra-intestinal manifestations. Epidemiology Typically ulcerative colitis manifests in young adults (15-40 years of age) and is more prevalent in males but the onset of d...
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Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction

Colonic pseudo-obstruction (also known as Ogilvie syndrome) is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
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Left colic flexure

Left colic flexure (or splenic flexure) is the bend in the large intestine in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen as the transverse colon continues as the descending colon. The phrenicocolic ligament attaches the splenic flexure to the left hemidiaphragm. It lies more cranial than the right c...
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Descending colon

The descending colon is the continuation of the transverse colon after the left colic flexure, where the colon loses its mesentery.  Gross anatomy The descending colon measures up to 25 cm in length and is secondarily retroperitoneal. It descends down attached to the left posterior abdominal w...
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Sigmoid colon

The sigmoid colon is the continuation of the descending colon. Gross anatomy After the distal descending colon has curved medially it enters the pelvis, where it gains a mesentery and is then called the sigmoid colon. It measures approximately 15 cm in length.  It has a "S" (Greek letter sigm...
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Rectum

The rectum is the last part of the large intestine. It is located within the pelvis and is the continuation of the sigmoid colon after the rectosigmoid junction and continues as the anal canal at the anorectal angle created by puborectalis.  Gross anatomy At the level of the S3 vertebral body,...
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Toxic megacolon

Toxic megacolon is an acute complication that can be seen in both types of inflammatory bowel disease, and less commonly in infectious colitis and other types of colitis. It is due to fulminant colitis which causes loss of neurogenic tone of the colon leading to severe dilatation and increasing ...
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Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome, also referred as familial juvenile polyposis, is one of the polyposis syndromes and consists of hundreds of juvenile polyps. Epidemiology Presentation in the second decade is most common 2. Clinical presentation Rectal bleeding, bowel obstruction and intussuscept...