Items tagged “core condition”
356 results found
Aortic intramural hematoma
Aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to hemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural hematomas are seen in older hypertensive patients....
Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...
Croup, also known as acute laryngotracheobronchitis, is due to viral infection of the upper airway by parainfluenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Although imaging findings are not required for the diagnosis, classic findings of narrowing of the subglottic airway and dilatation of ...
Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), also known as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, is a complication of gadolinium-based contrast agents used in imaging studies. It is characterized by "firm, erythematous, and indurated plaques of the skin associated with subcutaneous edema" 1. Eventually, fl...
Scaphoid fractures (i.e. fractures through the scaphoid bone) are common, in some instances can be difficult to diagnose, and can result in significant functional impairment. Epidemiology Scaphoid fractures account for 70-80% of all carpal bone fractures 1. Although they occur essentially at a...
AAST spleen injury scale
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale, most recently revised in 2018, is currently the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma. The 2018 update incorporates "vascular injury" (i.e. pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula) into the imaging criter...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the types of extra-axial intracranial hemorrhage and denotes the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space. Epidemiology Patients tend to be older middle age, typically less than 60 years old 2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for 3% of stroke and...
Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnosi...
Thoracic aortic injury
Thoracic aortic injury is the most common type of traumatic aortic injury and is a critical life-threatening, and often life ending event. Clinical presentation Approximately 80% of patients with thoracic aortic injury die at the scene of the trauma. In those who make it to hospital, clinical...
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage
Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PMSAH) is a distinct pattern of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is centred on the basal cisterns around the midbrain. Epidemiology PMSAH is rare with an incidence of 0.5 in 100 000 in adults 4. PMSAH represents 5-10% of all subarachnoid hemorrhag...
Burst lumbar fracture
Published 24 Sep 2008
Renal vascular pedicle injury
Renal vascular pedicle injury is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney. Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal he...
An intracerebral hemorrhage, or intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage, is a subset of an intracranial hemorrhage. This can encompass a number of entities that share the acute accumulation of blood in the parenchyma of the brain. The etiology, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis vary widely depe...
A perforated appendix is one of the complications of acute appendicitis. If appendicitis is left untreated, ischemic necrosis of a portion of appendiceal wall may occur, leading to perforation. An appendicolith is thought to be associated with a higher probability of perforation 1. Epidemiology...
Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Published 03 Jul 2009
Published 23 Aug 2009
Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion
Acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion, which can then result in an acute mesenteric ischemia, can be a life-threatening event related to the artery supplying the majority of the small bowel and right side of the colon. Epidemiology An acute occlusion is an uncommon event that typically ...