Items tagged “critical care”

21 results found

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of acute lung injury and occurs as a result of a severe pulmonary injury that causes alveolar damage heterogeneously throughout the lung. It can either result from a direct pulmonary source or as a response to systemic injury. This is a disti...

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism, which is what this article mainly covers. Non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli sou...

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy defined by left ventricular hypertrophy which cannot otherwise be explained by another cardiac or systemic disease. It is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in infants, teenagers, and young adults. Terminology Although hypert...

Acute acalculous cholecystitis

Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in the gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia. Epidemiology Acute acalculo...


Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology A variety of clinical classifica...

Nitrous oxide toxicity

Nitrous oxide (N2O) toxicity has serious medical sequelae affecting both the CNS and the bone marrow. Neurological effects include encephalopathy, myelopathy, and neuropathy. This results from demyelination and gliosis due to a functional deficiency of vitamin B12 1. Bone marrow toxicity may lea...


Rhabdomyolysis describes the breakdown of striated muscles with the release of intracellular contents and represents a severe muscle injury. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Rhabdomyolysis is potentially life-threatening although recovery is excellent with early treatment. Clinical presen...

Midline shift

Midline shift is one of the most important indicators of increased intracranial pressure due to mass effect. Pathology Any intra-axial or extra-axial lesion (tumor, hemorrhage, abscess, etc.) has the potential to exert mass effect on the brain parenchyma and cause lateral shift of the midline ...

Pneumothorax (ultrasound)

Pneumothorax is a serious potential consequence of blunt thoracic trauma and, if misdiagnosed, it may quickly become life-threatening. For a discussion on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment and prognosis please see the main pneumothorax article.  Radiographic feature...

Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (approach)

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE) is a basic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed for undifferentiated respiratory failure at the bedside, immediately after the physical examination, and before echocardiography. The protocol is simple and dichotomous, and takes fewer...


Manganese (chemical symbol Mn) is one of the essential trace elements. It has an important biological role in the synthetic pathway for mucopolysaccharides, and it also is a cofactor for several enzymes. Chemistry Basic chemistry Manganese has the atomic number 25 with an atomic weight of 54....

Abdominal compartment syndrome

Abdominal compartment syndrome is a disease defined by the presence of new end-organ dysfunction secondary to elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Radiological diagnosis is difficult and usually suggested when a collection of imaging findings are present in the appropriate clinical setting or if t...

Subglottic stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a condition characterized by narrowing of the subglottic airway (region below the vocal cords). It can be congenital or acquired 1. Epidemiology Subglottic stenosis is the third most common congenital airway abnormality. The incidence of subglottic stenosis has decreased...

Stroke volume

The stroke volume (SV) is referred to as the volume of blood ejected into the aorta or main pulmonary artery during each cardiac cycle. The stroke volume index (SVI) is the stroke volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage The stroke volume is another integral parameter used for t...


Shock is a pathologic state in which cellular injury results from an inadequate degree of effective tissue perfusion 5. It is commonly subcategorized by hemodynamic parameters into hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and extracardiac obstructive shock 1. Common causes include hemorrhage, car...

Supraclavicular brachial plexus block (ultrasound)

A supraclavicular brachial plexus block is indicated for establishing sensory and motor blockade of the upper extremity, including the humerus, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand.  Indications necessity to provide analgesia of the upper extremity for: abscess incision and drainage elbow dislocat...

Esophageal balloon tamponade device

An esophageal balloon tamponade device is a form of balloon catheter designed to exert direct pressure on bleeding gastro-esophageal varices in order to obtain hemostasis. It is considered a temporizing measure in hemodynamically unstable patients in whom endoscopic (or angiographic) interventio...

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and is typically caused by the aerosolization and aspiration of a highly viscous hydrocarbon, such as vegetable oil, mineral oil or petroleum jelly 5. The more common pulmonary toxicity exerted by hydrocarbons is ...

Swan-Ganz catheter

  Diagnosis certain
Reabal Najjar
Published 30 Nov 2022
97% complete

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.