Items tagged “critical care”

14 results found

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) refers to embolic occlusion of the pulmonary arterial system. The majority of cases result from thrombotic occlusion, and therefore the condition is frequently termed pulmonary thromboembolism which is what this article mainly covers. Non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli sour...

Acute acalculous cholecystitis

Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia. Epidemiology Acute acalculous c...


Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology A variety of clinical classifica...

Midline shift

One of the most important indicators of increased intracranial pressure due to mass effect is midline shift. Pathology Any intra-axial or extra-axial lesion (tumor, hemorrhage, abscess, etc.) has the potential to exert mass effect on the brain parenchyma and cause lateral shift of the midline ...

Pneumothorax (ultrasound)

Pneumothorax is a serious potential consequence of blunt thoracic trauma and, if misdiagnosed, it may quickly become life-threatening. For a discussion on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathology, and treatment and prognosis please see the main pneumothorax article.  Radiographic feature...

Sonographic approach to dyspnea (mnemonic)

This mnemonic will help with the sonographic approach to the critically ill patient with dyspnea: CHEST Mnemonic C: collapsed lung (pneumothorax)  absence of anterior lung sliding, lung pulse, B-lines, or z-lines these artifacts arise from the pleural interface; their presence would rule ou...

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (approach)

Bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE) is a basic point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) examination performed for undifferentiated respiratory failure at the bedside, immediately after the physical examination, and before echocardiography. The protocol is simple and dichotomous, and takes fewer...

Abdominal compartment syndrome

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a disease defined by the presence of new end-organ dysfunction secondary to elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Radiological diagnosis is difficult and usually suggested when a collection of imaging findings are present in the appropriate clinical set...

Subglottic stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a condition characterized by narrowing of the subglottic airway (region below the vocal cords). It can be congenital or acquired 1. Epidemiology Subglottic stenosis is the third most common congenital airway abnormality. The incidence of subglottic stenosis has decreased...

Stroke volume

The stroke volume (SV) is referred to as the volume of blood ejected into the aorta or main pulmonary artery during each cardiac cycle. The stroke volume index (SVI) is the stroke volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage The stroke volume is another integral parameter used for t...


Shock is a pathologic state in which cellular injury results from an inadequate degree of effective tissue perfusion 5. It is commonly subcategorized by hemodynamic parameters into hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and extracardiac obstructive shock 1. Common causes include hemorrhage, car...

Supraclavicular brachial plexus block (ultrasound)

A supraclavicular brachial plexus block is indicated for establishing sensory and motor blockade of the upper extremity, including the humerus, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand.  Indications necessity to provide analgesia of the upper extremity for: abscess incision and drainage elbow dislocat...

Esophageal balloon tamponade device

An esophageal balloon tamponade device is a form of balloon catheter designed to exert direct pressure on bleeding gastro-esophageal varices in order to obtain hemostasis. It is considered a temporizing measure in hemodynamically unstable patients in whom endoscopic (or angiographic) interventio...

Swan-Ganz catheter

 Diagnosis certain
Dr. Reabal Najjar
Published 30 Nov 2022
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