Items tagged “definition”

75 results found
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Sprain

Sprain (latin distorsio) refers to injury of ligaments and capsules and should not be confused with strain which refers to injury to muscles and their tendons.  These terms should not be used interchangeably lest you become the butt of an orthopaedic surgeons derision.
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Strain

Strain refers to injury of muscles and tendons and should not be confused wtih sprain which refers to injury to ligaments and capsules. One way to remember the distinction is that strain (with a T) is for tendons (which attach to muscle). These terms should not be used interchangably lest you b...
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Diverticulum

Diverticula are out-pouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. True diverticula contains all layers of the wall of the parent organ (typically mucosa, muscular layer and serosa) uncommon e.g. Meckel diverticulum False diverticula does not contain all layers (typically mu...
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Myochosis coli

Myochosis coli is an uncommonly used term to denote the shortening and thickening of the colon seen in diverticulosis.  This is due to shortening of the taenia coli and thickening of the circular muscular layer 1.
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Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal fluid filled structure which is lined by epithelium. This distinguishes it from a pseudocyst with lacks an epithelial lining.  Cysts are extremely common and found in many organs. Examples include: renal cysts hepatic cysts choroid plexus cysts mucous retention cysts
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Pseudocyst

A pseudocyst is an abnormal fluid filled cavity which is not lined by epithelium.  It is this fact that distinguishes if pathologically from a cyst, which is lined by epithelium. Examples of pseudocysts are:  pancreatic pseudocyst pulmonary pseudocyst pseudocysts of the germinal matrix
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Metaepiphysis

Metaepiphysis is a portmanteau of metaphysis and epiphysis and refers to the combined region including the location of the growth plate. The term is therefore used to describe lesions that span both regions e.g. giant cell tumour of bone. See also diaphysis metaphysis epiphysis apophysis p...
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Intraventricular

Intraventricular is a term used to denote lesions / processes that occur within either the ventricles of the brain or the ventricles of the heart.  In both cases, most lesions actually arise from the surrounding brain parenchyma / heart muscle and grow exophytically into the ventricles.  See a...
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Hepatopetal

Hepatopetal denotes flow of blood towards the liver, which is the normal direction of blood flow through the portal vein. The term is typically used when discussing the portal vein or recanalised vein of the ligamentum teres in patients with suspected portal hypertension. It is the opposite of ...
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Dysphagia

Dysphagia refers to subjective awareness of difficulty or obstruction during swallowing. It is a relatively common and increasingly prevalent clinical problem.  Fluoroscopy is the mainstay of imaging assessment but manometry can help evaluate the esophageal motor pattern and lower esophageal sp...
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Bronchorrhoea

Bronchorrhoea is the expectoration of copious amounts of mucus from the lungs. It has been defined as production of more than 100 mL of mucus in 24 hours, which is more than is usually seen in chronic lung disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis typically produces 25 mL/24 hrs) 2. It may be a feature o...
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Monostotic

Monostotic is typically used to refer to a condition that involves only one bone. Examples of conditions that can be monostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
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Monomelic

Monomelic is typically used to refer to a condition that is confined to only one limb. Examples of conditions that can be monomelic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
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Polyostotic

Polyostotic is typically used to a condition that involves multiple bones. Examples of conditions that can be polyostotic include fibrous dysplasia and melorheostosis. See also monostotic polyostotic monomelic
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Mucocele

A mucocele simply refers to accumulation and expansion of a structure by mucus. It occurs in a variety of locations which are discussed separately: paranasal sinus mucocele oral cavity e.g. ranula, mucous retention cysts mucocele of the appendix 1 mucocele of the gallbladder mucocele of the...
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Bursa

Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of synovial fluid. It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. They may or may not communicate ...
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Incidentaloma

An incidentaloma is a radiological neologism to denote a mass lesion found incidentally and of dubious clinical significance. Although it can refer to any incidental lesion (e.g. pituitary 3, thyroid 4), it is most often used to denote an incidental adrenal lesion, which is commonly an adrenal a...
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Sprain vs strain

As petty as it sounds, medicine (and especially radiology) is all about precision in the terminology we use. Sprain and strain are often used interchangeably and often (randomly) incorrectly.  Sprain refers to injury of ligaments.  Strain refers to injury of muscles and tendons. A simple aide-...
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Agnosia

Agnosia is a neurological disorder characterised by an inability to identify an object despite both having knowledge of that object and sensory input that is functional. For example a patient with posterior cortical atrophy, which characteristically has visual agnosia, will be unable to identify...
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Apraxia

Apraxia is the inability to perform tasks which the patient has perviously learned and has no physical impairment which would preclude them from performing them 1.  Typically apraxia stems from damage to the parietal lobes. 

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