Items tagged “echo”
33 results found
Ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a hemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and may...
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterized by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta...
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9. Pathology It is p...
Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with abrupt, pleuritic, positional left precordial ch...
Carcinoid heart disease
Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...
Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
Right atrial enlargement
Right atrial enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial enlargement. Pathology Causes Enlargement of the right atrium can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hypertension cor pul...
Four chamber cardiac view (fetal)
The four chamber cardiac view is an important and routinely performed view in both fetal echocardiography as well as on a standard second trimester anatomy scan. Detectable pathology The four chamber view can only detect some of the congenital cardiac anomalies (~64% according to one study 2) ...
Bicuspid aortic valve
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) refers to a spectrum of deformed aortic valves with two functional leaflets or cusps which are often unequal in size. They are most often congenital while an acquired bicuspid valve occurs when there is fibrous fusion between the right and left cusps of a pre-existin...
Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)
In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...
Speckle tracking echocardiography
Speckle tracking echocardiography describes the semi-automated analysis of grey scale (B-mode) echocardiographic studies in which the spatial translocation of derived functional units (speckles) allows quantitative analysis of myocardial function. Speckle tracking constitutes a subset of deform...
Non-compaction of the left ventricle
Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from arrest of normal myocardial compaction dur...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not defined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden, unexpected emotional or physical st...
Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)
Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis. Epidemiol...
Prosthetic heart valve
Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (echocardiography)
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 10 Jul 2014
The crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of the right atrium, formed following resorption of the right valve of the sinus venosus. It represents the junction between the sinus venarum, the "smooth" portion of the right atrium derived from the embryologic sinus veno...
Cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis
Cardiomyopathy in hemochromatosis refers to an iron overload cardiomyopathy which can occur in those with the condition. In primary hemochromatosis leading to iron overload, the cardiomyopathy has classically been categorized as an infiltrative cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. While in thos...
Cardiovascular (cardiac) shunts are abnormal connections between the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Most commonly they are the result of congenital heart disease. Pathology Blood can either be shunted from the systemic circulation to pulmonary circulation (i.e. 'left-to-right shunt') or ...
Eosinophilic endocarditis, also known as Loeffler endocarditis, is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology There is limited information on the incidence of eosinophilic endocarditis. the majority of ...