Items tagged “echocardiography”

53 results

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with global or regional systolic dysfunction not sufficiently explained by abnormal loading conditions (such as valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, hypertension etc.) or coronary artery disease 1-4. It m...

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent a hole or pathway in the interventricular septum that allows for communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and ma...

Ebstein anomaly

Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly, characterized by a variable developmental anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Epidemiology The anomaly accounts for only ~0.5% of congenital cardiac defects 6,7, although it is the most common cause of congenital tricuspid regurgitation. T...

Transposition of the great arteries

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also known as transposition of the great vessels (TGV), is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac anomaly presenting during the newborn period, with cyanosis in the first 24 hours of life. It occurs as a result of ventriculoarterial discordance, w...

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly with abnormal drainage anatomy of the entire pulmonary venous system. This contrasts with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) where only part of the pulmonary venous anatomy is abnormal. In TAPV...

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance.  Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9.  Pathology It is p...

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm refers to abnormal dilatation of the sinus of valsalva and is a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms arise from one of the aortic sinuses. They are either congenital or acquired. Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being...

Carcinoid heart disease

Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...

Fetal echocardiography views

A standard fetal echocardiogram consists of several specific views which can be obtained to optimize visualization of different structures and anomalies. They include: Basic views abdominal situs view / transverse view of abdomen four chamber view left ventricular outflow tract view (or a fi...

Intracardiac thrombus

Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...

Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement. Pathology Etiology Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hype...

Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...

Mitral valve regurgitation

Mitral valve regurgitation, also known as mitral valve insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, is a valvulopathy that describes leaking of the mitral valve during systole that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction from the left ventricle into the left atrium. Epidemiology According...

Non-compaction of the left ventricle

Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from the arrest of normal myocardial compaction...

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress cardiomyopathy, apical ballooning syndrome, or broken heart syndrome, is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. Epidemiology It has been described predomi...

Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis.  Epidemiol...

Prosthetic heart valve

Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (echocardiography)

  Diagnosis almost certain
Yune Kwong
Published 10 Jul 2014
75% complete

Patent foramen ovale

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a normal foetal interatrial connection which can persist into adult life. This can cause stroke due to paradoxical embolus. Terminology PFO is an anatomical variant due to persistence of a normal foetal structure rather than a malformation, in contradistinction ...

Eosinophilic endocarditis

Eosinophilic endocarditis, also known as Löffler (Loeffler) endocarditis, is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It is also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology There is limited information on the incidence of eosinophilic endocarditis. The ...