Items tagged “echocardiography”
41 results found
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined as left ventricular chamber dilation with decreased systolic function (FEVG <40%) in the absence of coronary artery disease or conditions that impose a chronic pressure overload. There may also be right ventricular dysfunction. Causes are related to intrin...
Ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent defects in the interventricular septum that allow a hemodynamic communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and may...
Ebstein anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac anomaly, characterized by a variable developmental anomaly of the tricuspid valve. Epidemiology The anomaly accounts for only ~0.5% of congenital cardiac defects 6,7, although it is the most common cause of congenital tricuspid regurgitation. T...
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common subtype of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by a marked decrease in ventricular compliance. Clinical presentation Patients can present with symptoms and signs of left ventricular failure and/or right ventricular failure 9. Pathology It is p...
Carcinoid heart disease
Carcinoid heart disease, also known as Hedinger syndrome, is a known complication of carcinoid tumors, and is particularly prevalent in patients who develop carcinoid syndrome. Epidemiology Cardiac lesions are present in approximately 50% of patients with carcinoid syndrome 1. Clinical presen...
Fetal echocardiography views
A standard fetal echocardiogram consists of several specific views which can be obtained to optimize visualization of different structures and anomalies. They include: Basic views abdominal situs view / transverse view of abdomen four chamber view left ventricular outflow tract view (or a fi...
Intracardiac thrombi are seen in a variety of clinical settings and can result in severe morbidity or even death from embolic events. They can occur following myocardial infarction with ventricular thrombus formation, or with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis where atrial thrombi predomina...
Right atrial enlargement
Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement. Pathology Etiology Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hype...
Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)
In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...
Non-compaction of the left ventricle
Non-compaction of the left ventricle, also known as spongiform cardiomyopathy or left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a phenotype of hypertrophic ventricular trabeculations and deep interventricular recesses. It has been hypothesized to result from arrest of normal myocardial compaction dur...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) (a.k.a. apical ballooning syndrome) is a condition characterized by transient regional abnormal cardiac wall motion, not confined to a single coronary arterial territory. It has been described predominantly in postmenopausal women, often following exposure to sudden...
Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)
Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis. Epidemiol...
Prosthetic heart valve
Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (echocardiography)
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 10 Jul 2014
Eosinophilic endocarditis, also known as Loeffler endocarditis, is one of the cardiac manifestations of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. It also considered a form of cardiomyopathy. Epidemiology There is limited information on the incidence of eosinophilic endocarditis. the majority of ...
Left ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)
The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view (or five chamber view) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It is a long-axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta (left ventricle outflow tract). In this view, the right vent...
Right ventricular outflow tract view (fetal echocardiogram)
The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) view (or three vessel view/3VV) is one of the standard views in a fetal echocardiogram. It principally assesses the right ventricular outflow tract. It is a long axis view of the heart, highlighting the path from the right ventricle into the pulmonary t...
Congestive cardiac failure
Congestive cardiac failure (CCF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) or simply heart failure, refers to the clinical syndrome caused by inherited or acquired abnormalities of heart structure and function, causing a constellation of symptoms and signs that lead to decreased quality and ...
Left atrial appendage
The left atrial appendage (LAA) (also known as left auricle) is a pouch-like projection from the main body of the left atrium, which lies in the atrioventricular sulcus in close proximity to the left circumflex artery, the left phrenic nerve, and the left pulmonary veins. Gross anatomy Morphol...
Mean pulmonary arterial pressure
Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP or MPAP) can be estimated by echocardiography, although the gold standard remains measurements taken directly during right heart catheterization. It is calculated by the formula: (PASystolic pressure +2 PADiastolic pressure) / 3 The pulmonary arterial sys...