Items tagged “elbow”

33 results found
Article

Elbow ossification (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for elbow ossification include CRITOE and CRITOL. These are essentially the same, apart from the terminal letter which represents the External or Lateral epicondyle. Mnemonics CRITOE C: capitellum R: radial head I: internal epicondyle T: trochlea O: olecranon E: external epicon...
Article

Medial epicondyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fractures represent almost all epicondyle fractures and occur when there is avulsion of the medial epicondyle. They are typically seen in children, and can be challenging to identify. Failure to diagnose these injuries can lead to significant long term disability.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Monteggia fracture-dislocation

Monteggia fracture-dislocations consist of a fracture of the ulnar shaft with concomitant dislocation of the radial head. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious, whereas the radial head dislocation can be overlooked, with potentially serious functional and medico-legal ramifications.  Mechanism ...
Article

Panner disease

Panner disease is an osteochondrosis of the capitellum. It should be distinguished from osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow which also affects the capitellum.  Epidemiology Panner disease is typically seen in children (5-10 years of age), although it is also seen in throwers due to repeated...
Article

Radial head fractures

Radial head fractures are, together with the radial neck fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Epidemiology Although fractures of the radial head are seen in all age groups, they usually occur in adults (85% between 20-60 year...
Article

Sail sign (elbow)

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph describes the elevation of the anterior fat pad to create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion. The anterior fat pad is usually concealed within the coronoid fossa or seen parall...
Article

Terrible triad of the elbow

The terrible triad of the elbow is a severe elbow fracture-dislocation pattern and is so-called because it has poor medium-to-long term outcome.  Epidemiology The terrible triad primarily occurs in adults; the flexibility of ligaments in children make this constellation unlikely 4. Pathology ...
Article

Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in adults and the most common in children.  Epidemiology Elbow dislocations are common and account for 10-25% of all elbow injuries in the adult population 1. They are the most common dislocation in children 4. Associations ...
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
Article

Lateral epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an overuse syndrome of the common extensor tendon and predominantly affects the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. Epidemiology Lateral epicondylitis occurs with a frequency seven to ten times that of medial epicondylitis. As wit...
Article

Lateral epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is an overuse syndrome of the common extensor tendon and predominantly affects the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. Epidemiology Lateral epicondylitis occurs with a frequency seven to ten times that of medial epicondylitis. As wit...
Article

Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
Article

Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. It should be distinguished from dislocation of the radial head.  Epidemiology Pull...
Article

Elbow

The elbow is a complex synovial joint formed by the articulations of the humerus, the radius, and the ulna.  Gross anatomy Articulations The elbow joint is made up of three articulations 2,3: radiohumeral: capitellum of the humerus with the radial head ulnohumeral: trochlea of the humerus w...
Article

Flexion supracondylar fracture

Flexion supracondylar humeral fractures account for only 2-4% of all supracondylar fractures 1. Unlike the much more common extension supracondylar fracture which are seen in children, flexion fractures are seen in older patients. They are usually the result of a fall directly onto a flexed elbo...
Article

Epicondyle fracture (elbow)

Epicondyle fractures are common injuries in children. They represent 10% of all elbow fractures in children and usually occur in boys after a fall on an outstretched arm. Medial epicondyle fractures comprise most of these injuries. They can usually be treated with splinting and early physiother...
Article

Anterior humeral line

The anterior humeral line is key to demonstrating normal elbow alignment and should be used whenever reading a pediatric elbow radiograph to exclude a subtle supracondylar fracture. Measurement A line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle third of the capit...
Article

Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the pediatric setting. The rule A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the ra...
Article

Os supratrochleare dorsale

Os supratrochlear dorsale is an accessory ossicle of the elbow located in the olecranon fossa of the humerus 1. It may become symptomatic due to trauma during elbow extension and as such may require surgical removal 2. The differential diagnosis is an intra-articular loose body but the treatment...
Article

Olecranon foramen

An olecranon foramen, also known as septal aperture or supratrochlear foramen, is a common normal anatomical variant of the distal humerus.  Epidemiology There is a wide variation of incidence, occurring between 5% to 50% of the population depending on ethnicity, being more common in individua...

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