Items tagged “emergency medicine”

111 results found
Article

Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumours with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascu...
Article

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy (also known as an intramural) is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with cornual pregnancy...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 3-4 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Article

Small bowel folds (differential)

Regular, smooth generalised thickening oedema congestive cardiac failure (CCF) hypoalbuminaemia lymphatic obstruction angioneurotic oedema infection radiation ischaemia haemorrhage anticoagulation or bleeding diasthesis vasculitidies Henoch-Schonlein purpura Buerger disease graft v...
Article

Subdural haemorrhage

Subdural haemorrhage (SDH) is a collection of blood accumulating in the subdural space, the potential space between the dura and arachnoid mater of the meninges around the brain. SDH can happen in any age-group, is mainly due to head trauma and CT scans are usually sufficient to make the diagnos...
Article

Cerebral venous thrombosis

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) refers to occlusion of venous channels in the cranial cavity, including dural venous thrombosis, cortical vein thrombosis and deep cerebral vein thrombosis. They often co-exist and the clinical presentation among them is very similar and nonspecific. Furthermore,...
Case

Gunshot wound to head

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 26 Nov 2008
62% complete
CT
Article

Renal vascular pedicle injury

Renal vascular pedicle injury  is a severe form of renal trauma, which if not recognised and treated expediently with lead to the loss of the kidney.  Radiographic features CT Contrast enhanced CT is the Imaging modality of choice. On CT it is recognised as a non-enhaning kidney. Perirenal ha...
Case

Croup - steeple sign

Croup - Steeple S...
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Michael Sargent
Published 22 Apr 2009
69% complete
X-ray
Article

Small bowel obstruction

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction, the remaining 20% results from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation Classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nausea and vomi...
Article

Perforated appendix

A perforated appendix is one of the complications of acute appendicitis. If appendicitis is left untreated, ischemic necrosis of a portion of appendiceal wall may occur, leading to perforation. An appendicolith is thought to be associated with a higher probability of perforation 1. Perforation o...
Article

Sternoclavicular joint dislocation

Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) dislocation is rare, accounting for only ~2% of joint dislocations and especially when compared to other traumatic upper limb injuries such as clavicular fractures.  Clinical presentation Most cases result from indirect trauma 5, especially high-speed motor vehicle...
Article

Posterior dislocation of the hip

Posterior dislocations of the hip, although uncommon, are the most common direction of dislocation for this joint, outnumbering anterior dislocations 9:1. Pathology It most frequently occurs in the setting of significant trauma, given the large amount of force required. The most common scenari...
Case

Lipohaemarthrosis of the shoulder

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 05 Nov 2009
90% complete
X-rayAnnotated image
Article

Colonic pseudo-obstruction

Colonic pseudo-obstruction (also known as Ogilvie syndrome) is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
Article

Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall can occur in a number of situations. They include: cholecystitis acute cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder empyema 7 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis acalculous cholecystitis postprandial physiological state (pseudothickening) sec...
Article

Acute pyelonephritis

Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis parallels that of lower urinary tr...
Article

Striated nephrogram

Striated nephrogram, originally described on plain film urography, but just as easily seen on CT urography represents linear bands of contrast extending from the medulla of the kidney towards the cortex. Pathology Striations result from stasis and concentration of contrast material in oedemato...
Article

Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis (PR) refers to a rare phenomenon characterized by the presence of air within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Aetiology PR can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumorrhachi...
Article

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle torts on the spermatic cord resulting in the cutting off of blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause, a bell-clapper deformity. The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it is in doubt, an ul...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.