Items tagged “emergencymedicine”

258 results found
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as a peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension, and with or without compression 5. Classification There are two...
Article

Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Case

Lipohemarthrosis

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 23 Aug 2009
69% complete
Annotated imageX-ray
Article

Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
Article

Shoulder dislocation

The shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) involves separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to the...
Case

Cerebral contusions - bifrontal

 Diagnosis almost certain
Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 09 Sep 2009
48% complete
CT
Article

Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting emergency medical scenario with very high mortality unless its etiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmo...
Article

Marchiafava-Bignami disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare CNS disorder usually seen in the context of alcoholism and malnutrition. The condition classically involves necrosis and demyelination of the corpus callosum.  Epidemiology Marchiafava-Bignami disease is in most instances seen in chronic alcoholics, ...
Case

Lipohemarthrosis

 Diagnosis certain
Associate Professor Donna D'Souza
Published 05 Nov 2009
72% complete
X-ray
Case

Patellar tendon rupture

 Diagnosis certain
Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 05 Nov 2009
75% complete
X-ray
Case

Osteomyelitis of femur

 Diagnosis probable
Dr Ruslan Asadov
Published 10 Nov 2009
71% complete
CT
Case

Calcified oil cyst

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Wael Nemattalla
Published 12 Nov 2009
57% complete
Mammography
Case

Biloma

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Wael Nemattalla
Published 02 Dec 2009
62% complete
CT
Article

Maisonneuve fracture

Maisonneuve fracture refers to a combination of a fracture of the proximal fibula together with an unstable ankle injury (widening of the ankle mortise on x-ray), often comprising ligamentous injury (distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, deltoid ligament) and/or fracture of the medial malleolus. It i...
Article

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/geneti...
Article

Childhood malignancies

Unfortunately the pediatric population is susceptible to malignancies. The most common entities, in overall order of frequency, are 1-4: leukemia/lymphoma: ~35% * acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 23% Hodgkin disease: 5% acute myelogenous leukemia: 4% central nervous system malignancies: ~20% ...
Article

Aspergilloma

Aspergillomas are mass-like fungus balls that are typically composed of Aspergillus fumigatus and are a non-invasive form of pulmonary aspergillosis. It usually falls under the subgroup chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Terminology Although the term mycetoma is frequently used to describe these...
Article

Freiberg disease

Freiberg disease, also known as Freiberg infraction, is osteochondrosis of metatarsal heads. It typically affects the 2nd metatarsal head, although the 3rd and  4th may also be affected. It can be bilateral in up to 10% of cases. Epidemiology It is most common in females aged 10-18 years (male...
Article

Air space opacification

Air space opacification is a descriptive term that refers to the filling of the pulmonary tree with material that attenuates x-rays more than the surrounding lung parenchyma. It is one of the many patterns of lung opacification and is equivalent to the pathological diagnosis of pulmonary consoli...
Case

Jefferson fracture

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Andrew Dixon
Published 03 May 2010
98% complete
Annotated imageX-rayCT