Items tagged “emergencymedicine”

263 results found
Article

Intracerebral haemorrhage

An intracerebral haemorrhage, or intraparenchymal cerebral haemorrhage, is a subset of an intracranial haemorrhage. This can encompass a number of entities that share the acute accumulation of blood in the parenchyma of the brain. The aetiology, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis vary widely ...
Article

Annular fissure

Annular fissures are a degenerative deficiency of one or more layers that make up the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc.  Terminology Many authors prefer the term annular fissure over annular tear, as the latter seems to imply acute injury 1,2. In the setting of severe trauma with di...
Article

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is one of the presentations of diverticular disease and is most often a complication of colonic diverticulosis. Differentiating one from the other is critical since uncomplicated diverticulosis is mostly asymptomatic and acute diverticulitis is a potentially life-threatening illne...
Article

Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article, the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal/kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each.  See main ar...
Article

Odontoid fracture

Odontoid process fracture, also known as the peg or dens fracture, occurs where there is a fracture through the odontoid process of C2. Pathology The mechanism of injury is variable, and can occur both during flexion or extension with or without compression 5. Classification There are two cl...
Article

Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Case

Lipohaemarthrosis

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 23 Aug 2009
69% complete
X-rayAnnotated image
Article

Colovesical fistula

Colovesical fistulas are communications between the lumen of the colon and that of the bladder, either directly or via an intervening abscess cavity (foyer intermediaire). When the communication is between the rectum and urinary bladder, the term rectovesical fistula is used. Epidemiology The ...
Article

Shoulder dislocation

In a shoulder dislocation (more accurately termed a glenohumeral joint dislocation) there is separation of the humerus from the glenoid of the scapula at the glenohumeral joint. This article contains a general discussion on shoulder dislocation. For specific dislocation types please refer to th...
Case

Cerebral contusions - bifrontal

 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 09 Sep 2009
48% complete
CT
Article

Causes of pulseless electrical activity (mnemonic)

Pulseless electrical activity is a very disconcerting medical scenario with a very high mortality unless its aetiology can be quickly ascertained and corrected. A mnemonic to remember the different causes of pulseless electrical activity is: MAD (triple H) CAT Mnemonic M: massive pulmonary em...
Article

Marchiafava-Bignami disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare CNS disorder usually seen in the context of alcoholism and malnutrition. The condition classically involves the corpus callosum with necrosis and demyelination.  Epidemiology MBD is in most instances seen in chronic alcoholics, and as such the epidem...
Case

Lipohaemarthrosis

Lipohaemarthrosis...
 Diagnosis certain
Dr Donna D'Souza
Published 05 Nov 2009
72% complete
X-ray
Case

Patellar tendon rupture

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 05 Nov 2009
75% complete
X-ray
Case

Osteomyelitis of femur

B100 007
 Diagnosis probable
Dr Ruslan Asadov
Published 10 Nov 2009
45% complete
CT
Case

Calcified oil cyst

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Wael Nemattalla
Published 12 Nov 2009
60% complete
Mammography
Case

Biloma

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Wael Nemattalla
Published 02 Dec 2009
62% complete
CT
Article

Maisonneuve fracture

Maisonneuve fracture is the combination of a spiral fracture of the proximal fibula and unstable ankle injury which could manifest radiographically by widening of the ankle joint due to distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and/or deltoid ligament disruption, or fracture of the medial malleolus. It is...
Article

Rectal foreign bodies

Rectal foreign bodies are not uncommon in emergency departments around the world, and although they are often the source of endless amusement do potentially cause management difficulties. Epidemiology The incidence varies according to the region, said to be uncommon in Asia and most common in ...
Article

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula

Congenital tracheo-oesophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus.   Epidemiology Tracheo-oesophageal fistula and oesophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live births 1-3,5. There is only a minimal hereditary/ge...

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