Items tagged “endocrine”

293 results found
Article

Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas are the most common adrenal mass lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adrenal metastases or other ad...
Article

Carney complex

Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, which is autosomal dominant and characterised by 1-4: cardiac myxoma often multiple seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex skin pigmentation (blue naevi): especially of the ...
Article

Carney triad

The Carney triad (not to be confused with the related Carney Stratakis syndrome, or the unrelated Carney complex) is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas wer...
Article

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is the effect of excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body. It can be primary, secondary or tertiary. There are many characteristic imaging features predominantly involving the skeletal system. Pathology Increased levels of the PTH lead to increased osteoclastic activity...
Article

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is also known as Wermer syndrome. Clinical presentation Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the commonest presentations. Pathology The abnormality is related to a tumour suppressor gene located in chromosome 11q13. MEN type I is an autosomal domin...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II (MEN2) is also known as mucosal neuroma syndrome or multiple endocrine adenomatosis. It is a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of multiple endocrine tumours.  They are autosomal dominant in inheritance, and share medullary thyroid carcino...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN2 and is characterised by: pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calciton...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIb

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterised by: pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
Article

Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a collection of syndromes characterised by the presence of, as the name would suggest, multiple endocrine tumours. They are autosomal dominant in inheritance. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) MEN2 (multiple endocrine adenomatosis) MEN2a (Sipple syndrome)...
Article

Pancreatic ducts

The pancreatic ductal embryology is moderately complicated, leading to a number of anatomical variants of the pancreatic ducts, many of which are clinically significant. The normal arrangement is for the entire pancreas to be drained via a single duct, to the ampulla of Vater through the sphinc...
Article

Pituitary apoplexy

Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical syndrome caused by either haemorrhagic or non-haemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland 2. Although variable, it typically comprises of headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, and altered mental status 7. An existing pituitary macroadenoma is usuall...
Article

Pituitary stalk

The pituitary stalk, also known as the infundibulum or infundibular stalk, is largely outside the blood brain barrier like the rest of the pituitary and therefore normally enhances following the administration of gadolinium. It gradually tapers inferiorly, and superiorly is spread by the infundi...
Article

Pituitary stalk abnormal enhancement (differential)

Abnormal nodular enhancement of the pituitary stalk can be seen in: tumours germinoma hypothalamic glioma CNS lymphoma pituicytoma granular cell tumour of the pituitary (a.k.a. pituitary choristoma) pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (a.k.a. infundibuloma) pituitary metastases...
Article

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes

Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are a rare set of diseases characterised by the presence of ≥2 autoimmune endocrine disease. Pathology Three types of PAS have been described.  PAS type I a.k.a. APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy) or MEDAC (mu...
Article

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.  Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...
Article

Thyroid cancer (staging)

Successful treatment of thyroid cancer highly depends on accurate preoperative staging. Ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies. CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodules, h...
Article

Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic / colloid nodule / nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroi...
Case

Adrenal adenoma (incidentaloma)

CT with ROI
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
66% complete
CTMRI
Case

Pituitary apoplexy

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 07 May 2008
86% complete
MRI

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