Items tagged “endocrine”

292 results found

Allgrove syndrome

Allgrove syndrome (also known as triple A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive condition that consists of three main findings: achalasia alacrima ACTH insensitivity

Neuroblastoma vs Wilms tumour

Both neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour occur in early childhood and typically present as large abdominal masses closely related to the kidneys. Distinguishing between the two is important, and a number of features are helpful. Neuroblastoma calcification very common: 90% encases vascular structu...

Neuroblastic tumours

Neuroblastic tumours arise from primitive cells of the sympathetic system and include the following entities: neuroblastoma ganglioneuroblastoma ganglioneuroma These entities represent a spectrum of disease from undifferentiated and aggressive (neuroblastoma) to the well differentiated and l...


MIBG scan is a scintigraphic study that uses metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled to Iodine-123 or Iodine-131. It is indicated in the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. MIBG is positive in: neuroblastoma olfactory neuroblastoma 1 carcinoid tumour 4 paraganglioma phaeochromocytoma medullary th...

Ectopic pancreatic tissue

Ectopic pancreatic tissue (or heterotopic pancreatic tissue) refers to the situation where rests of pancreatic tissue lie outside and separate to the pancreatic gland. Most patients are completely asymptomatic. Epidemiology It is reportedly relatively common, affecting ~5% (range 1-10%) 1 of p...

Carney complex

Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, which is autosomal dominant and characterised by 1-4: cardiac myxoma often multiple seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex skin pigmentation (blue naevi): especially of the ...

Pituitary lymphoma

Pituitary lymphoma is very rare, although lymphomatous (or leukaemic) infiltration of the perisellar dura is not infrequently encountered as part of more widespread CNS disease. This article concerns itself with involvement of the pituitary itself rather than the region more broadly. For a gener...

Substernal goitre

Substernal goitre is a goitre (enlarged thyroid gland) with intrathoracic extension. It remains unclear which goitres are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goitre that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete removal or an intrathoracic compone...

Riedel thyroiditis

Riedel thyroiditis is a very rare form autoimmune thyroiditis. It is sometimes considered as a manifestation of a wider systemic disease with fibrosis of the retroperitoneum, mediastinum, as well as lymphocytic infiltration of extraocular orbital muscles, salivary and lacrimal glands 4. Most rec...

Thyroid acropachy

Thyroid acropachy is an unusual presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease, (~1% of patients with Graves disease). It can occur in hyperthyroid, euthyroid, hypothyroid, or even post-treatment patients. It is almost always associated with thyroid ophthalmopathy.  Epidemiology The majority of pa...

Organ of Zuckerkandl

The organ of Zuckerkandl comprises of a small mass of chromaffin cells derived from neural crest located along the aorta, beginning cranial to the superior mesenteric artery or renal arteries and extending to the level of the aortic bifurcation or just beyond. The highest concentration is typica...

Werner syndrome

Werner syndrome is a progeroid rare autosomal recessive condition attributed to chromosome 8. It should not to be confused with similarly sounding Wermer syndrome. Pathology Werner syndrome is characterised by premature senescence cataracts short stature scleroderma-like skin changes such ...

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is characterised by adrenal insufficiency that results from atraumatic adrenal haemorrhage in consequence of septicaemia.  Pathology Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is due to septicaemia and common infective agents include 5: meningococcus: traditionally desc...

Pituitary tumours

Pituitary tumours, in other words, tumours which arise from the pituitary gland itself, include: pituitary adenoma pituitary microadenoma pituitary macroadenoma pituitary carcinoma pituicytoma pituitary metastases spindle cell oncocytoma (rare) Often the term is used more broadly to refe...

Mikulicz syndrome

Mikulicz syndrome was considered a form of Sjögren syndrome (type 1) however more recently it is considered in IgG4 related disease spectrum.  It is a non-specific inflammatory enlargement of at least two or more of the salivary and lacrimal glands with xerostomia.  It may also be referred to b...

Subperiosteal bone resorption

Subperiosteal bone resorption is the most consistent and specific finding of hyperparathyroidism and is virtually pathognomonic of the condition. Radiographic features While the terminal tufts of the phalanges are the most commonly involved bones, many others are involved: tufts of the distal...

Adrenal gland tumours

Despite its small size, the adrenal gland is affected by a relatively large number of neoplastic entities: adrenal adenoma adrenal myelolipoma adrenal cortical carcinoma adrenal pheochromocytoma adrenal neuroblastoma adrenal metastases See also adrenal lesions: for a more general list of...

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I is also known as Wermer syndrome. Clinical presentation Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the commonest presentations. Pathology The abnormality is related to a tumour suppressor gene located in chromosome 11q13. MEN type I is an autosomal domina...

Thyroid inferno

Thyroid inferno refers to the colour Doppler appearance of the thyroid gland in active Graves disease (inclusive of variants such as Marine Lenhart syndrome), and consists of multiple small areas of colour flow seen diffusely throughout the gland representing increased vascularity and arterioven...

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.  Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies anterior to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages of the lar...

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