Items tagged “ent”
30 results found
The facial nerve is one of the key cranial nerves with a complex and broad range of functions. Although at first glance it is the motor nerve of facial expression which begins as a trunk and emerges from the parotid gland as five branches (see facial nerve branches mnemonic), it has taste and p...
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNA) are a rare benign but locally aggressive vascular tumour. Epidemiology Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas occur almost exclusively in males and usually in adolescence (~15 years). They account for only 0.5% of all head and neck tumours 2, but are ...
The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a small triangular depression affecting the inner table of the temporal bone. The lines forming the triangle are: anterior: posterior border of the external acoustic meatus superior: posterior root of the zygomati...
Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
Ranulas are rare, benign, acquired, cystic lesions that occur at the floor of the mouth as submandibular or minor salivary gland retention cysts. Epidemiology For reasons that are unclear, they appear to be more common in the Maori of New Zealand and Pacific Island Polynesians 7. Clinical pr...
Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of concrements (sialoliths) inside the ducts or parenchyma of salivary glands and most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Epidemiology Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands, accounting for approximately 50%...
Cochlear implants (CI) are a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound, but works by directly stimulating any functioning audi...
Maxillary tori are analogous to mandibular tori and are composed of densely mineralised bone usually devoid of a medullary cavity. Unlike in the mandible, where they arise on the inner surface, when arising from the maxilla they may project both inwards (in which case they arise from the midline...
Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)
This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that corresponds to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: late...
A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
Adenoid and palatine tonsil on lateral radiograph
Published 20 Mar 2010
Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. It is of squamous cell origin, some types of which are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the na...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) refer to SCCs of the aerodigestive tract of the head and neck rather than cutaneous SCCs. SCC is the most common tumour of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and can occur anywhere there is squamous cell mucosa. Epidemiology, risk factor...
Published 21 Dec 2010
Temporal bone fracture
Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potentially damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial haemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of te...
Longitudinal temporal bone fractures
Longitudinal temporal bone fractures are petrous temporal bone fractures that occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Although more current classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientati...
The foramen tympanicum (also known as foramen of Huschke) is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a foramen tympanicum in the asym...
Parapharyngeal abscesses are deep neck abscesses involving the parapharyngeal space. It is a serious medical condition, potentially fatal, and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Epidemiology A person of any age can develop a parapharyngeal abscess, but it is most commonly seen in childre...
Sialolithiasis - submandibular gland
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 06 Sep 2013
Tonsillitis refers to inflammation of any of the tonsils and is one of the most common head and neck infections in adolescents and young adults. Clinical presentation Patients may present with a variety of symptoms including painful throat (may be unilateral), dysphagia, fevers, tender cervica...