Items tagged “ent”

39 results found
Article

Chronic otomastoiditis

Chronic otomastoiditis is defined as persistent or recurrent inflammation of the middle ear (chronic otitis media) and mastoid, lasting usually for a minimum of 12 weeks, often resulting in permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane. It should be considered a separate entity from acute otoma...
Article

Facial nerve

The facial nerve is the seventh (CN VII) cranial nerve and comprises two roots, a motor root and a smaller mixed sensory, taste and parasympathetic root, known as nervus intermedius, which join together within the temporal bone (TA: nervus facialis or nervus cranialis VII). The facial nerve has...
Article

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas are a rare benign, but locally aggressive, vascular tumors that occur almost exclusively in young men; usually between the ages of 10 and 18.  On imaging, they present as a vividly enhancing soft-tissue masses centered on the sphenopalatine foramen. Given i...
Article

MacEwen triangle

The MacEwen triangle (also called the suprameatal triangle or mastoid fossa) is a surgical landmark on the surface of the temporal bone just superior to the external auditory canal used to locate the level of the mastoid antrum. Three lines form the triangle: superior: inferior temporal line/s...
Article

Otomastoiditis

Otomastoiditis refers to inflammation of both the middle ear (otitis media) and mastoid (mastoiditis), can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
Article

Ranula

Ranulas are rare, benign, acquired, cystic lesions that occur at the floor of the mouth as sublingual or minor salivary gland retention cysts.  Epidemiology For reasons that are unclear, they appear to be more common in the Maori of New Zealand and Pacific Island Polynesians 7. Clinical prese...
Article

Sialolithiasis

Sialolithiasis refers to the formation of calculi (sialoliths) inside the ducts or parenchyma of salivary glands and most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Epidemiology Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands, accounting for approximately 50% of ...
Article

Deviated nasal septum

Deviated nasal septums are a common, usually incidental, finding seen on brain and paranasal sinus CT studies. They are commonly seen with external nose deformities.  Clinical presentation Symptomatic patients can present with unilateral nasal obstruction or less commonly epistaxis, obstructiv...
Article

Cochlear implant

Cochlear implants (CI) are surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. Unlike conventional hearing aids, the cochlear implant does not amplify sound but works by directly stimulating any functioning auditor...
Article

Maxillary torus

Maxillary tori (cf. mandibular tori) are common benign outgrowths of bone from the maxilla which may project both inwards or outwards from the alveolar bone. They typically also arise from the hard palate in the midline, in which case they are called tori palatini. They are usually bilateral. C...
Article

Auditory brainstem response tracing (mnemonic)

This mnemonic helps when remembering the ascending order of structures that correspond to each waveform in an auditory brainstem response (ABR) tracing: E COLI Mnemonic E: eighth nerve action potential (wave I) C: cochlear nucleus (wave II) O: olivary complex (superior) (wave III) L: later...
Article

Nystagmus (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic to remember the expected direction of nystagmus during a caloric test is: COWS Mnemonic Cold-Opposite Warm-Same Following ear stimulation with water (left ear): cold water (cooler than body temperature), a right-beating nystagmus (directed toward the opposite ear) result...
Case

Adenoid and palatine tonsil (lateral neck radiograph)

  Diagnosis certain
Maulik S Patel
Published 20 Mar 2010
82% complete
X-ray
Article

Sinonasal disease

The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are host to many diseases and conditions, collectively termed sinonasal disease. Pathology inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis Pott puffy tumor chronic sinusitis fungal sinusitis non-invasive: hyphae do not invade mucosa...
Article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are the most common primary malignancy of the nasopharynx. They are of squamous cell origin. Some types are strongly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Epidemiology Nasopharyngeal carcinoma accounts for ~70% of all primary malignancies of the nasophar...
Article

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the most common histologic type of head and neck cancer. While the term may include any squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, common usage focuses on those of mucosal origin, i.e., squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract...
Case

Cochlear implant

  Diagnosis certain
Jeremy Jones
Published 21 Dec 2010
71% complete
CT
Article

Temporal bone fracture

Temporal bone fracture is usually a sequela of significant blunt head injury. In addition to potential damage to hearing and the facial nerve, associated intracranial injuries, such as extra-axial hemorrhage, diffuse axonal injury and cerebral contusions are common. Early identification of tempo...
Article

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures

Longitudinal temporal bone fractures are petrous temporal bone fractures that occur parallel to the long axis of the petrous temporal bone. Although classifications of the extent of temporal bone fractures focus on the integrity of the otic capsule rather than the fracture orientation, descripti...
Article

Foramen tympanicum

The foramen tympanicum (plural: foramina tympanica), also known as foramen of Huschke, is an anatomical variation in the external acoustic canal (EAC), where a bony defect connects the EAC to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Epidemiology Various studies have reported on the occurrence of a f...