Items tagged “figures”

170 results found
Article

Dorsal talonavicular ligament

The dorsal talonavicular ligament is one of the three stabilizers of the talonavicular joint and therefore a stabilizer of the midtarsal (Chopart) joint. Gross anatomy The dorsal talonavicular ligament extends from the mid-talar neck to the navicular bone and merges with the joint capsule medi...
Article

Snoopy sign

The Snoopy sign is a chest radiographic appearance in pericardial agenesis. It is due to combination of cardiac levoposition (heart shifted to the left), lengthening and flattening of the border of the left ventricle, radiolucency separating the left ventricle and left hemidiaphragm, radiolucenc...
Article

Myocarditis protocol (MRI)

The MRI myocarditis protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected myocardial inflammation. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics will vary depending on addit...
Article

ARVC protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI ARVC protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics wil...
Article

Myocardial viability protocol (MRI)

The MRI myocardial viability protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the assessment of myocardial viability. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the setting of acute or chronic myocardial infarction.  Protocol specifics will vary de...
Article

Cardiac iron overload protocol (MRI)

The cardiac MRI iron overload protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected iron overload cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the above setting.  Protocol specifics will vary dep...
Article

Cine imaging (MRI)

Cine imaging, a.k.a. cine sequences or cine MRI, are a type of MRI sequence acquired to capture motion. Imaging technique Cine images are obtained by repeatedly imaging the area of interest for a certain time typically within a single slice, although 3D solutions already exist 3. For the hear...
Article

Cardiac gating (MRI)

Cardiac gating or cardiac triggering refers to the gain of information about specific time points and their use for image acquisition during the cardiac cycle. Technique Cardiac synchronization can be achieved by the ECG signal or with a peripheral pulse transducer. The following two types of ...
Article

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy protocol (MRI)

The MRI hypertrophic cardiomyopathy protocol encompasses a set of different MRI sequences for the cardiac assessment in case of suspected hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a cardiac MRI protocol in the assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or...
Article

Acetabular sector angle

The acetabular sector angles are a set of angles, comprising the anterior acetabular sector angle (AASA), the posterior acetabular sector angle (PASA) and horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA) and are used on cross-sectional imaging, especially pelvic CT, for the evaluation of acetabular cov...
Article

Pelvic rotation

Pelvic rotation is one of three parameters contributing to the pelvic orientation and defines the rotation of the pelvis within the axial plane. It is a potential source of measurement errors on the pelvis (AP view). Correspondingly pelvic rotation can lead to false-positive or negative radiogra...
Article

Glomus coccygeum

The glomus coccygeum or glomus body of the coccyx is a microanatomical structure formed by an arteriovenous anastomosis and represents likely a phylogenetic vestigial structure 1. Gross anatomy Glomus bodies are spheroidal or ovoid well-circumscribed vascular lesions. Their size is usually up ...
Article

Femoral neck-shaft angle

The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) or caput-collum-diaphyseal (CCD) angle is one of the most frequently applied measurements to assess hip morphology, in particular, the relation of the femoral shaft to the femoral head-neck axis. Usage The femoral head-neck-shaft angle is used in the diagnosi...
Article

Acetabular sourcil

The acetabular sourcil is a radiographic feature seen on plain radiographs of the hip and pelvis as well as coronal CT reformats and MR images. Gross anatomy The acetabular sourcil refers to the roof or the weight-bearing area of the acetabulum and is characterized by increased sclerosis. It n...
Article

Synovial hyperplasia

Synovial hyperplasia refers to an increase in the cellularity of the synovial membrane and leads to synovial thickening, which is a common radiographic feature in the setting of synovitis. Clinical presentation Synovial hyperplasia manifests as swelling. Pathology Synovial hyperplasia is cha...
Article

Thebesian valve

The Thebesian valve, also known as the valve of the coronary sinus, is a fold in the right atrium at the opening of the coronary sinus 1. The valve can create difficulties and interfere with the cannulation of the coronary sinus during cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) 1. Gross anatomy ...
Article

Arthrocentesis

Arthrocentesis or joint aspiration is an interventional procedure done for the collection of synovial fluid. History The existence of liquid inside joints was first mentioned in the Corpus Hippocraticum, later in the 16th century, Paracelsus coined the name “synovia” for synovial fluid. Indic...
Article

Microfracture

Microfracture is a commonly performed cartilage repair or marrow stimulation method, which induces fibrocartilage growth by creating small microcracks into the subchondral bone. History First reports on mesenchymal stem cell stimulation date back to 1946 1. The microfracture technique, how it ...
Article

Autologous chondrocyte implantation

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a cell-based cartilage reconstruction or replacement method where hyaline articular cartilage is directly administered and retained. It can be used for larger chondral lesions, where the subchondral bone plate remains intact. History Autologous chon...
Article

Osteochondral autograft transplantation

Osteochondral autograft transplantation (OAT) or mosaicplasty is a tissue-based cartilage reconstruction or replacement method which is used for smaller chondral and osteochondral lesions. History Osteochondral autograft transplantation or mosaicplasty was originally reported in the early 1990...