Items tagged “figures”

170 results found
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End-systolic volume

The end-systolic volume (ESV) is referred to as the volume of blood in the left or right ventricle at the end of the systolic ejection phase immediately before the beginning of diastole or ventricular filling. The end-systolic volume index (ESVI) is the end-systolic volume corrected for the body...
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Cardiac output and cardiac index

Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac index (CI) are important hemodynamic parameters characterizing cardiac function and reflecting body metabolism. Usage Cardiac output and cardiac index are used in the evaluation of patients with heart disease and critically ill patients as well as patients under...
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Cardiac volumes and measurements

Quantitative cardiac volumes and measurements can be obtained for the left and right cardiac chambers and include the following 1-3: end-diastolic diameter interventricular septum thickness end-diastolic volume (EDV) [mL] and end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) [mL/m2] end-systolic volume (ESV...
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Body surface area

The body surface area (BSA) refers to the calculated surface area of the human body. Due to the fact that it is less affected by abnormal adipose tissue mass than weight it has been considered a better indicator of the metabolic mass of the human body. Usage The body surface area is used for t...
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Regurgitant volume and regurgitant fraction

The regurgitant volume refers to the volume of blood flowing backwards or in the reverse direction through the valvular plane within a beat or cardiac cycle. The regurgitant fraction is referred to as the backflowing blood volume divided by the forward flow volume and is expressed in percent [%...
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Velocity encoding

Velocity encoding or Venc is referred to as an operator-controlled parameter for the determination of the maximum velocity within a velocity-encoded phase contrast imaging study. Usage Velocity-encoding (Venc) gradients are used to generate a phase shift in magnetic resonance phase contrast im...
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Holodiastolic flow reversal

Holodiastolic flow reversal (HDR) refers to a backward flow typically observed in the descending aorta during the whole diastolic phase and has been observed in the setting of moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Usage It has been found to predict severe aortic regurgitation with high sens...
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Endocardium

The endocardium defines the inner soft tissue lining of the heart within the cardiac chambers and constitutes the superficial surface of the cardiac valves. It apparently serves as a regulatory mechanism on myocardial contractility. Gross anatomy The endocardium represents the inner layer of t...
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Myocardium

The myocardium defines the middle layer of the cardiac wall between the endocardium and the pericardium and forms the muscular part of the heart. Gross anatomy The myocardium represents the middle layer of the cardiac wall. It is located between the endocardium and the epicardial layer of the ...
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Epicardium

The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium and forms the outer layer of the cardiac wall. Gross anatomy The epicardium is the visceral part of the serous pericardium, envelopes the heart, contains a variable amount of epicedial fatty tissue adjoining the myocardium at its ou...
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Extracellular space and extracellular matrix

The extracellular space refers to the space outside the cells and is occupied by fluid and various metabolites, ions, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules framing the structure of the respective tissue like the extracellular matrix, affecting cellular function such as extracellular vesicles, ...
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MR feature tracking

MR feature tracking refers to an MRI based post-processing method, used on normal cine SFFP sequences for the analysis of myocardial deformation and the determination of myocardial strain parameters. Methodology MRI feature tracking is a two-dimensional software algorithm applied on standard c...
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Cardiac strain

Cardiac strain or myocardial strain describes the deformation of the cardiac wall or chamber from a relaxed to a contracted condition more precisely the alteration of length in one dimension or spatial orientation. It can be expressed by a mathematical principle with the following formula 1,2: ...
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MR tagging

Cardiac MR tagging or myocardial tagging refers to an MRI-based acquisition method designed for the analysis of myocardial deformation. Technique The method exploits tissue magnetization as a tissue property. A local magnetic saturation grid of dark-lined tissue markers known as tags are induc...
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Mitral annular plane systolic excursion

Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) refers to the displacement of the mitral valvular plane in the z-direction and reflects left ventricular longitudinal contraction or shortening, which has been attributed to account for about 60% of the stroke volume 1. Terminology Mitral annular...
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Cardiac function

Cardiac function refers to the hearts capability to fulfill its task as the motor or pump of the blood circuit satisfying the bodies demands of oxygen and nutritive substances as well as the removal of waste products. A direct measure of cardiac function is cardiac output which can be increased...
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Segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries

The segmental anatomy of the coronary arteries has been originally developed and published by the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and the American Heart Association (AHA). It is widely used for the description of coronary findings in particular within the scope of coronary artery disease. Cor...
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Atrioventricular septum

The atrioventricular (AV) septum or septal atrioventricular junction forms a central part of the heart, where the interatrial and interventricular septum crosses the atrioventricular annular plane and join with the septal tricuspid and anterior mitral leaflet attachments. Terminology On a four...
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Atrioventricular nodal artery

The atrioventricular (AV) nodal artery is a small artery supplying the atrioventricular septal area and the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy The atrioventricular nodal artery usually courses through the inferior pyramidal space of the heart. Origin The origin of the atrioventricular noda...
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Inferior pyramidal space of the heart

The inferior pyramidal space of the heart is an area filled with epicardial adipose tissue at the backside or diaphragmatic side of the heart immediately beneath the crux cordis. Gross anatomy The inferior pyramidal space is a pyramid-shaped fibrofatty structure between the two septal atrial w...