Items tagged “figures”

170 results found
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Meniscofibular ligament

The meniscofibular ligament is a capsular ligament that connects the corpus of the lateral meniscus to the fibular head and provides stability to the posterolateral corner of the knee. Gross anatomy The meniscofibular has been shown to be present in up to 100% of cadaver studies 1,2. It consis...
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Valgus instability of the elbow

Valgus instability of the elbow can develop as a result of ulnar collateral ligament injury either in the setting of chronic overuse or in the context of an acute or an acute-on-chronic injury. Epidemiology Valgus instability can be seen in athletes and less commonly in non-athletes. Risk fac...
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Segmental endplate angles in spine injuries

Segmental endplate or segmental kyphosis angles include the monosegmental and bisegmental endplate angle as well as the vertebral compression angle and play a role in the stability assessment after spinal injuries. The following angles might be used 1-3: monosegmental endplate angle or Gardner...
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Fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa

The fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris bursa is a small bursa separating the medial surface of the anterior arm of the long head biceps femoris tendon from the medially inserting lateral collateral ligament of the knee at the level of the fibular head. Gross anatomy The fibular collate...
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Synovial folds of the hip

Synovial folds or plicae of the hip are vestigial structures within the hip joint and include labral and ligamental plicae as well as the femoral retinacula. Gross anatomy The following synovial folds, plicae or retinacula have been described in the hip joint 1-5: femoral neck plicae or retin...
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Synovial folds

Synovial folds or synovial plicae are remnant duplications of synovium formed during embryonic development. They are of particular interest and commonly described in the knee, elbow and hip joint but can be also found in other joints 1-4. Terminology The term ‘plica’ is commonly used if a syn...
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Cartilage

Cartilage or cartilaginous tissue is a resilient and type of connective tissue of mesodermal origin that forms an integral part within the musculoskeletal system and as a structural component in other organs.   Cartilage can be generally classified into the following main types: hyaline cartil...
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Cardiac wall motion abnormalities

Cardiac wall motion abnormalities describe kinetic alterations in the cardiac wall motion during the cardiac cycle and have an effect on cardiac function. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities can be categorized with respect to their degree and their distribution pattern that is whether they are glo...
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Inflammatory arthritis

Inflammatory arthritides, also known as arthropathies, are a group of joint disorders associated with synovitis and synovial hyperplasia caused by an influx of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory arthritides might also show extra-articular inflammation such as tenosynovitis and enthesitis and might...
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Anterior pontomesencephalic vein

The anterior pontomesencephalic vein (APMV) is a longitudinal vein running along the anterior surface of the pons and mesencephalon and in the interpeduncular fossa. Uncommonly it can become large and can potentially lead to confusion on imaging. In a midline position, it is called the median an...
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Lateral mesencephalic vein

The lateral mesencephalic veins (LMV) form an important supratentorial-infratentorial anastomosis from the basal veins of Rosenthal to the superior petrosal sinus. Gross anatomy The lateral mesencephalic veins usually course through or near the lateral mesencephalic sinus. They receive venous ...
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Anterior medullary vein

The anterior medullary vein (AMV) is a vein of the brainstem that can be seen in several individuals. It connects the anterior spinal vein to the pontomesencephalic venous system and several adjacent dural sinuses via bridging veins. Gross anatomy The anterior medullary vein usually courses in...
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Peduncular vein

The peduncular veins (PV) or interpeduncular veins are veins of the brainstem and tributaries of the basal vein of Rosenthal, sometimes visible on imaging in the vicinity of the basilar artery tip and the proximal posterior cerebral artery. Gross anatomy The peduncular veins drain the cerebral...
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Transverse pontine vein

The transverse pontine veins course in a horizontal fashion along the anterior surface of the pons at different heights above or below the trigeminal nerve. Gross anatomy The transverse pontine veins connect the anterior pontomesencephalic vein to the veins on the lateral pontine surface inclu...
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Veins of the brainstem

The veins of the brainstem drain the medulla, the pons and the mesencephalon, including the cerebral peduncles, tegmentum and quadrigeminal plate. They are characterized by several variations and feature multiple connections draining into the inferior, medial superior petrosal sinuses or form a ...
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Cullen sign

Cullen sign refers to superficial edema visible as periumbilical discolouration and is most commonly seen in patients with acute pancreatitis 1-3. Clinical presentation Clinically patients with pancreatitis present with epigastric pain that radiates to the umbilical/periumbilical region and th...
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Laminotomy

A laminotomy is a spinal decompression procedure with partial removal of the vertebral arch usually at its base. Laminotomies might be combined with other spinal procedures such as discectomy or spinal fusion procedures. If a laminotomy is combined with a foraminotomy, then the procedure is call...
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Osseous surgical spinal fusion

Osseous surgical spinal fusion refers to spinal fusion surgery with bone grafts, bone graft supplements or bone graft substitutes. Osseous spinal fusion eventually supplies the best stability for the respective spinal segment and most types of spinal fusion surgeries are directed to establish a...
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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles, skeletal striated muscles or plainly muscles are integral to the locomotor system responsible for movements. The human body's musculoskeletal system has more than 600 muscles 1 making up around 40% of the body weight. They are heterogeneous and have different architectures and ...
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Low back pain

Low back pain, lumbar or lumbosacral pain is an extremely common clinical symptom and the most common musculoskeletal condition affecting the quality of life that can be found in all age groups. It represents the leading cause of disability worldwide 1-3. Epidemiology Low back pain is a very c...