Items tagged “gallbladder”

32 results found
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Strawberry gallbladder

Strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall (gallbladder wall cholesterolosis).  Strawberry gallbladder represents...
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Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder

Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is a hyperplastic cholecystosis of the gallbladder wall. It is a relatively common and benign cause of diffuse or focal gallbladder wall thickening, most easily seen on ultrasound and MRI.  Epidemiology Adenomyomatosis is relatively common, found in ~9% of al...
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Gallbladder polyp

Gallbladder polyps are commonly occurring elevated lesions on the mucosal surface of the gallbladder. The vast majority are benign. They are best characterized on ultrasound as a non-shadowing endophytic growth into the gallbladder lumen.  Epidemiology Gallbladder polyps are relatively frequen...
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Pearl necklace sign

The pearl necklace sign occurs in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder, on both oral cholecystograms and MRCP. It represents the contrast/fluid-filled intramural mucosal diverticula (Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses); lined up, these are reminiscent of pearls on a necklace. It is synonymous with the CT ...
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Mirizzi syndrome

Mirizzi syndrome refers to an uncommon phenomenon that results in extrinsic compression of an extrahepatic biliary duct from one or more calculi within the cystic duct or gallbladder. It is a functional hepatic syndrome but can often present with biliary duct dilatation and can mimic other hepat...
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Diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)

Diffuse thickening of the gallbladder wall can occur in a number of situations: cholecystitis acute cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder empyema 7 xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis 11 acalculous cholecystitis 11 postprandial physiological state (pseudothickening) gallbladder ...
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Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the gallbladder

The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts play host to a surprisingly large number of benign tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be visible on imaging. In the gallbladder, most of them are detected incidentally, whereas in the bile ducts they are usually found in symptomatic patients (obst...
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Benign vs malignant features of gallbladder polyps

In most instances predicting benign versus malignant histology of a gallbladder polyp based purely on imaging features is not possible. However, a number of features are helpful in helping to decide the management of a gallbladder polyp.  Benign features size polyps that are less than 5 mm in...
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Acute cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Epidemiology Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of hospital admission and is responsible for a...
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Rosary sign (gallbladder)

The rosary sign is a CT finding in adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder. It is formed by the enhanced proliferative mucosal epithelium, with the intramural diverticula surrounded by the unenhanced hypertrophied muscle coat of the gallbladder. The rosary sign is similar to the pearl necklace sign.
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Gallbladder carcinoma

Gallbladder carcinoma is a type of gallbladder cancer and specifically refers to primary epithelial malignancies arising from the gallbladder, in which the great majority (90%) are adenocarcinomas and the remainder are squamous cell carcinomas. They are more prevalent in elderly women and, in mo...
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Porcelain gallbladder

Porcelain gallbladder refers to extensive calcium encrustation of the gallbladder wall. The term has been used to emphasize the blue discolouration and brittle consistency of the gallbladder wall at surgery but is often an incidental finding on multiple different imaging modalities.  Clinical p...
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Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped musculomembranous sac located along the undersurface of the liver. It functions to accumulate and concentrate bile between meals. Gross anatomy Macroscopic The normal adult gallbladder measures from 7-10 cm in length and 3-4 cm in transverse diameter 6. The ga...
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Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones, also called dropped or slipped gallstones, are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Clinical presentation Many cases of dropped gallstones will be...
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Emphysematous cholecystitis

Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare form of acute cholecystitis where gallbladder wall necrosis causes gas formation in the lumen or wall. It is a surgical emergency, due to the high mortality from gallbladder gangrene and perforation. Epidemiology Men are affected twice as commonly as women...
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Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis

Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that may be difficult to differentiate from malignancy, both on imaging and pathologically. It is characterized by the presence of multiple intramural nodules. Epidemiology Xanthogranulomatous cholec...
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Gallbladder perforation

Gallbladder perforations are a serious complication of acute cholecystitis and represent an advanced stage of the disease. They tend to occur in an elderly and/or comorbid demographic and carry higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation Symptoms and clinical signs are varia...
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Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that may occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describe stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones depe...
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Wall-echo-shadow sign (ultrasound)

The wall-echo-shadow sign (also known as WES sign) is an ultrasonographic finding within the gallbladder fossa referring to the appearance of a "wall-echo-shadow": a curvilinear hyperechogenic line representing the gallbladder wall a thin hypoechoic space representing a small amount of bile a...
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Sonographic Murphy sign

Sonographic Murphy sign is defined as maximal abdominal tenderness from pressure of the ultrasound probe over the visualized gallbladder 1,2. It is a sign of local inflammation around the gallbladder along with right upper quadrant pain, tenderness, and/or a mass 2. It is one of the most import...