Items tagged “general surgery”
342 results found
Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%. Epide...
Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self-limiting inflammatory/ischemic process involving an appendix epiploica of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is g...
Fournier gangrene is necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately, the condition is rare. It is primarily a clinical diagnosis, and definitive treatment must not be delayed to perform imaging, which usually has an ancilla...
Hiatus hernias occur when there is herniation of abdominal contents through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity. Epidemiology The prevalence of hiatus hernia increases with age, with a slight female predilection. Clinical presentation Many patients with hiatus her...
Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis
Edward John Hinchey et al. 3 proposed a classification for acute diverticulitis, (anywhere along the bowel, not just the colon) that has been variously adapted, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity. Classification stage Ia: phlegmon stage Ib: ...
Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighboring loop of the bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae including bowel necrosis. Whe...
Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, islet cells of the pancreas and parathyroid glands. There are other multiple...
Esophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the esophagus. Epidemiology Esophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% of a...
Portal venous gas
Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, centr...
The thyroid gland is a single midline endocrine organ in the anterior neck responsible for thyroid hormone production which lies in the visceral space completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia). Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies...
Thyroidea ima artery
The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk (most common: 1.9-6.0%) right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoraci...
Target sign (intussusception)
The target sign of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign or bull's eye sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechogenic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by mucosa and muscularis whereas the submucosa is responsible fo the hypoec...
Spigelian hernia, also known as lateral ventral hernia, is a type of abdominal hernia along the semilunar line, resulting in herniation between the muscles of the abdominal wall. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of ventral hernias 2,3. The incidence is thought to p...
Small bowel obstruction secondary to cecal tumor
Published 01 May 2009
Direct inguinal hernia
A direct inguinal hernia arises from protrusion of abdominal viscera through a weakness of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal medial to the inferior epigastric vessels, specifically through the Hesselbach's triangle. This type of hernia is termed direct as the hernial sac directly protrud...
Large bowel obstruction
Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Epidemiology Large bowel obstructions are far less common than small bowel obstructions, accounting for only...
Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
Richter hernias are an abdominal hernia where only a portion of the bowel wall is herniated and comprise 10% of strangulated hernias. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias but obstruction is less frequent. Pathology In contrast to most other types of ...