Items tagged “general surgery”

370 results found

Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...

Richter hernia

Richter hernias, also known as parietal hernias, (alternative plural: herniae) are an abdominal hernia where only a portion of the bowel wall is herniated and comprise 10% of strangulated hernias. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias but obstruction is ...

Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome

Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), formerly known as meconium ileus equivalent, is one of the many abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. In older children or young adults with cystic fibrosis, the distal small bowel may become obstructed with a mucofaeculent material in the di...

Puestow procedure

The Puestow procedure or lateral pancreaticojejunostomy is a lateral side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy that is used for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis. The pancreas is essentially filleted along its long axis from the uncinate process to the tail and connected to a Roux en-Y loop of je...

Rectal cancer (T3) and huge fibroids

  Diagnosis almost certain
Natalie Yang
Published 01 Sep 2009
77% complete

Obturator hernia

Obturator hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are characterized by bowel herniating between the obturator and the pectineus muscles. They are a rare type of abdominal hernia and can be a challenge to diagnose clinically. Epidemiology Typically obturator hernias occur in older women 2,3 or pa...

Adynamic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of adynamic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic The classic "5 Ps" are: P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition However, there are a few further Ps that can be included...

Bifid median nerve and persistent median artery of the forearm

  Diagnosis certain
Charudutt Jayant Sambhaji
Published 19 Oct 2009
91% complete

Mirizzi syndrome

Mirizzi syndrome refers to an uncommon phenomenon that results in extrinsic compression of an extrahepatic biliary duct from one or more calculi within the cystic duct or gallbladder. It is a functional hepatic syndrome but can often present with biliary duct dilatation and can mimic other hepat...


Pheochromocytomas are an uncommon tumor of the adrenal gland, with characteristic clinical, and to a lesser degree, imaging features. The tumors are said to follow a 10% rule: ~10% are extra-adrenal ~10% are bilateral ~10% are malignant ~10% are found in children ~10% are not associated wit...

Bile sump syndrome

Bile sump syndrome refers to a complication following a side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy.  Epidemiology This complication occurs in ~1% of patients following a side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy.  Clinical presentation Recurrent abdominal pain, cholangitis, pancreatitis, or biliary obstr...

Benign vs malignant features of gallbladder polyps

In most instances predicting benign versus malignant histology of a gallbladder polyp based purely on imaging features is not possible. However, a number of features are helpful in helping to decide the management of a gallbladder polyp.  Benign features size polyps that are less than 5 mm in...

Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed for pancreatic trauma. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) 5,7 The proximal pancreas is defined as the gland to the right of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV)-portal vein axis whereas the dista...

Rectus sheath hematoma

Rectus sheath hematomas, as the term implies, occur when a hematoma forms in the rectus abdominis muscle/rectus sheath. It is most common in its lower segment and is generally self-limiting. Epidemiology Rectus sheath hematomas are more common in women with a 3:1 F:M ratio. Clinical presentat...

Adrenal gland tumors

Despite its small size, the adrenal gland is affected by a relatively large number of neoplastic entities: adrenal adenoma adrenal myelolipoma adrenal cortical carcinoma adrenal pheochromocytoma adrenal neuroblastoma adrenal sarcoma adrenal metastases See also adrenal lesions: for a mor...

Acute cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis refers to the acute inflammation of the gallbladder. It is the primary complication of cholelithiasis and the most common cause of acute pain in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). Epidemiology Acute cholecystitis is a common cause of hospital admission and is responsible for a...

Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture or injury often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle collision. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it is perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. The ...

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernias (herniae also used) is the type of groin herniation (part of the larger group of abdominal wall hernias) that occurs above the inguinal ligament and through the inguinal canal. Epidemiology Inguinal hernias are the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias (up to 80% 3) and are...

Double duct sign

The double duct sign refers to the presence of simultaneous dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Being an anatomical sign it can be seen on all modalities that can visualize the region, including: MRI, CT, ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In ge...

Rectal foreign body

  Diagnosis certain
Frank Gaillard
Published 18 Dec 2010
85% complete