Items tagged “general surgery”

370 results
Article

Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory, and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic ...
Article

Internal hernia

Internal hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are protrusions of the viscera through the peritoneum or mesentery but remaining within the abdominal cavity. Epidemiology Internal hernias have a low incidence of <1% and represent a relatively small proportion, up to 5.8%, of presentations with ...
Article

Retained gallstone

Retained gallstones, also called dropped or slipped gallstones, are common during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.1–20%, and occur when gallstones are inadvertently spilled into the peritoneal cavity. Clinical presentation Many cases of dropped gallstones will be...
Article

Esophageal food impaction

Esophageal food impaction (or steakhouse syndrome) refers to a food bolus acutely obstructing the esophagus. Clinical presentation The main symptom is usually acute dysphagia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph Depending on the composition of the ingested content, the bolus may be visib...
Article

Abdominal adhesions

Abdominal adhesions are bands of scar tissue (fibrous or fibrofatty), most often occurring as a complication of previous abdominal surgery. Pathology Adhesions often occur with multiple abdominal operations or previous postoperative intra-abdominal complications history of intra-abdominal infla...
Article

Internal hernia due to gastric bypass surgery

Internal hernias due to gastric bypass surgery are more common after laparoscopic gastric bypass than after an open procedure.  Epidemiology Incidence after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass may range between 1-16%. The presence of strangulation may be associated with a mortality rate exceeding 50% r...
Case

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure

  Diagnosis not applicable
Bruno Di Muzio
Published 10 Aug 2011
44% complete
Diagram
Article

Emphysematous cholecystitis

Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare form of acute cholecystitis where gallbladder wall necrosis causes gas formation in the lumen or wall. It is a surgical emergency, due to the high mortality from gallbladder gangrene and perforation. Epidemiology Men are affected twice as commonly as women...
Case

Closed loop small intestinal obstruction

  Diagnosis probable
Praveen Jha
Published 23 Dec 2011
71% complete
CT
Article

Substernal goiter

Substernal goiter, or retrosternal goiter, is an enlarged thyroid gland with intrathoracic extension. Terminology It remains unclear which goiters are to be termed substernal, but a proposed definition is a goiter that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete removal or an ...
Case

Diverticulitis

  Diagnosis almost certain
Frank Gaillard
Published 05 Jul 2012
71% complete
CT
Article

Acute acalculous cholecystitis

Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in the gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia. Epidemiology Acute acalculo...
Case

Suture calcification - breast

  Diagnosis almost certain
Garth Kruger
Published 27 Jul 2012
57% complete
Mammography
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. While their occurrence may b...
Article

Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that may occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describe stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones depe...
Article

Sigmoid mesocolon hernia

Intersigmoid hernias, also known as sigmoid mesocolon hernias, (alternative plural: herniae) occur when small bowel loops protrude into a peritoneal pocket (intersigmoid fossa) formed between two adjacent sigmoid segments and their mesentery. Epidemiology Sigmoid mesocolon hernias account for ...
Article

Gastric band

A gastric band is a popular form of bariatric surgery and is a surgically placed device, used to assist in weight loss and is adjustable. Procedure Performed laparoscopically, a silicone band device is placed around the stomach to reduce its volume. The band is adjustable via a port placed in ...
Case

Appendicular stump - normal

  Diagnosis not applicable
Maulik S Patel
Published 13 Feb 2013
57% complete
Ultrasound
Article

Generalized colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalized colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
Case

Sigmoid volvulus - whirlpool sign

  Diagnosis certain
Shihab Ahmed Mahdi
Published 07 Apr 2013
95% complete
CT