Items tagged “general surgery”

370 results

Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias/herniae may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on type, location and content.  Epidemiology 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal ref. Pathology Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops ...

Cecal volvulus

Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in adults. CT is the mainstay for colon cancer locoregional staging and MRI is the mainstay for rectal cancer locoregional staging. This article focuses on co...

Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self-limiting ischemic/inflammatory process that affects the appendices epiploicae of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term, along with omental infarct...

Hiatus hernia

Hiatus hernias (alternative plural: herniae) occur when there is herniation of abdominal contents through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity. Epidemiology The prevalence of hiatus hernia increases with age, with a slight female predilection. Clinical presentation ...

Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

The Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis can be applied to diverticulitis occurring anywhere in the bowel, not just in the colon ref. Usage The Hinchey classification is the most commonly used system (c.2020) 8 and has been variously modified since its original description 3,5,6; no...

Incisional hernia

Incisional hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are relatively common and along with parastomal hernias, umbilical hernias, paraumbilical hernias, and Spigelian hernias, they are usually anterior abdominal hernias. Epidemiology Incisional hernias usually develop within a few months of surgery...


Intussusception occurs when one segment of the bowel is pulled into itself or a neighboring loop of the bowel by peristalsis. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude significant sequelae, including bowel necrosis...

Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischemic bowel is typically a disease...

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease that results in proliferative lesions in multiple endocrine organs, particularly the pituitary gland, pancreas, and parathyroid glands.  There are other multiple endocrine neoplas...

Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is globally the 7th most common cancer and 6th most common cause of cancer-related death as per NCCN version 3.2023. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the eso...

Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas, also known as pneumatosis portalis, is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. p...

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a single midline endocrine organ in the anterior neck responsible for thyroid hormone production which lies in the visceral space completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle layer of the deep cervical fascia). Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies...

Thyroidea ima artery

The thyroidea ima artery is an uncommon variant of the blood supply to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland. It is reported in ~7.5% (range 1.5-12.2%) of individuals and can arise from: brachiocephalic trunk (most common: 1.9-6.0%) right common carotid artery aortic arch internal thoraci...

Target sign (intussusception)

The target sign of intestinal intussusception, also known as the doughnut sign or bull's eye sign. The appearance is generated by concentric alternating echogenic and hypoechoic bands. The echogenic bands are formed by the serosa and submucosa either side of the hypoechoic muscularis propria 1....

Spigelian hernia

Spigelian hernias (alternative plural: herniae), also known as lateral ventral hernias, are a type of abdominal hernia along the semilunar line, resulting in herniation between the muscles of the abdominal wall. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of ventral hernias 2...

Small bowel obstruction secondary to cecal tumor

  Diagnosis certain
Jeremy Jones
Published 01 May 2009
71% complete

Direct inguinal hernia

A direct inguinal hernia (alternative plural: herniae) is a type of groin herniation, that arises from protrusion of abdominal viscera through a weakness of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal medial to the inferior epigastric vessels, specifically through Hesselbach's triangle. This type ...

Large bowel obstruction

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Terminology Bowel obstruction may be complete or incomplete 6: complete or high grade obstruction means tha...

Closed loop obstruction

Closed loop obstructions are a specific type of bowel obstruction in which two points along the course of the bowel are obstructed, usually but not always the transition points are adjacent at a single location. The closed loop refers to a segment of bowel without proximal or distal outlets for ...