Items tagged “gynaecology”

42 results found

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynaecological imaging, and vary widely in aetiology, from physiologic, to complex benign, to neoplastic. Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant, or the...


Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localised form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur women of reproductive age. ...

Paraovarian cyst

 Diagnosis probable
Dr Maulik S Patel
Published 02 Jul 2010
50% complete

Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

Tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic effects on the endometrium and thus is associated with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy endometrial carcinoma Epidemi...

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is abnormal proliferation of the endometrial glands and stroma, defined as diffuse smooth thickening >10 mm 13. One of the main concerns is the potential malignant transformation of the endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplas...

Endometrial atrophy

Endometrial atrophy is a response to a hypo-oestrogenic state. If it occurs after menopause it can be more specifically termed postmenopausal endometrial atrophy.  Clinical presentation While most patients are asymptomatic, endometrial atrophy is one of the commonest cause of postmenopausal bl...

Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumours of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumours. As ovarian thecomas secrete oestrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumours. Epidemiology They typically present in o...

Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix. It is the third most common gynaecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with the average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papillomavirus (HPV)...

Cervical polyp

Cervical polyps are polypoid growths projecting into the cervical canal. They can be one of the most common causes of intermenstrual vaginal bleeding.  Epidemiology Most patients are perimenopausal at the time of presentation, especially in the 5th decade of life. They are the most common mass...

Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts (POCs) are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3-4. Epidemiology They typically occur in women at the ages of 20-40 years old. Clinical presentation Most are asymptomatic, although patient...

Ovarian fibroma

Ovarian fibromas are a benign ovarian tumour of sex cord / stromal origin. Although fibromas account for ~4% of all ovarian neoplasms, they are the most common sex cord ovarian tumour. Epidemiology Fibromas occur at all ages but are most frequently seen in middle-aged women. Clinical presenta...


Hydrosalpinx is a descriptive term and refers to a fluid-filled dilatation of the fallopian tube. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. Pathology  One or both fallopian tubes may be affected. A hydrosalpinx results from an accumula...

Paraovarian cystadenoma

Paraovarian cystadenoma is a usually benign adnexal tumour that does not arise from the ovary. There is an association with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. Radiographic features Pelvic ultrasound typically seen as a unilateral cystic adnexal lesion may be a simple cyst, or contain solid nodular ...

Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is at the benign end of the spectrum of mucin-containing epithelial ovarian tumours. Epidemiology The estimated peak incidence is at around 30-50 years of age.  They comprise approximately 80% of mucinous ovarian tumours and 20-25% of all benign ovarian tumou...

Ovarian follicular cyst

An ovarian follicular cyst is type of simple physiological ovarian cyst. Terminology The terms "ovarian cyst" and "ovarian follilcular cyst" are often used interchangeably. These two terms describe lesions >3 cm, and it is important to differentiate them from an "ovarian follicle" which is <3 ...


Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....


A haematosalpinx refers to intraluminal blood within the Fallopian tube (often dilated).  Pathology Causes include tubal ectopic pregnancy: common cause 1 endometriosis: common cause 5 tubal carcinoma pelvic inflammatory disease fallopian tube torsion retrograde menstruation uterine cer...

Ovarian serous cystadenoma

Ovarian serous cystadenomas are a type of benign ovarian epithelial tumour at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours. Epidemiology Serous cystadenomas account for ~60% of ovarian serous tumours 1. They are the commonest type of ovarian epithelial neoplasm. The peak incidence ...

Germ cell tumours of the ovary

Germ cells tumours of the ovary account for approximately 15-20% of all ovarian tumours. In children and adolescents, up to 60% of ovarian tumours can be of germ cell origin. They include: ovarian teratoma(s): commonest primary benign tumour of ovary and commonest germ cell tumour: mature (cy...

Ovarian fibrothecoma

Ovarian fibrothecomas comprise tumours in the spectrum of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumours where there are components of both an ovarian fibroma and an ovarian thecoma.  Epidemiology Most occur in adult women, with ~66% in postmenopausal women. Although they account for ~1% of all ovarian tu...

Updating… Please wait.

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.