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Items tagged “gynaecology”

48 results found

Ovarian cyst

Ovarian cysts are commonly encountered in gynecological imaging and vary widely in etiology from physiological to complex benign to neoplastic. Pathology Small cystic ovarian structures should be considered normal ovarian follicles unless the patient is pre-pubertal, post-menopausal, pregnant,...


Endometriomas, also known as chocolate cysts or endometriotic cysts, are a localized form of endometriosis and are usually within the ovary. They are readily diagnosed on ultrasound, with most demonstrating classical radiographic features.  Epidemiology These occur in up to 10% of women of rep...

Paraovarian cyst

 Diagnosis probable
Dr Maulik S Patel
Published 02 Jul 2010
50% complete

Tamoxifen-associated endometrial changes

The oncological agent tamoxifen has pro-oestrogenic changes on the endometrium resulting in abnormal growth with an increased prevalence of: endometrial polyps: occurs in ~8-36% of women in treated 8 endometrial hyperplasia: occurs in ~1-20% of women treated ref cystic endometrial atrophy en...

Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia is an abnormal proliferation of the endometrial glands and stroma, defined as diffuse smooth thickening >10 mm 13. One of the major concerns is the potential malignant transformation to endometrial carcinoma. Epidemiology Endometrial hyperplasia affects women of all age...

Endometrial atrophy

Endometrial atrophy is a response to a hypo-oestrogenic state. If it occurs after menopause it can be more specifically termed postmenopausal endometrial atrophy.  Clinical presentation While most patients are asymptomatic, endometrial atrophy is one of the commonest cause of postmenopausal bl...

Ovarian thecoma

Ovarian thecomas are benign ovarian tumors of sex cord / stromal (mesenchymal) origin. They are thought to account for approximately 0.5-1% of all ovarian tumors. As ovarian thecomas secrete estrogen, they are described as functional ovarian tumors. Epidemiology They typically present in older...

Carcinoma of the cervix

Carcinoma of the cervix is a malignancy arising from the cervix. It is the third most common gynecologic malignancy (after endometrial and ovarian). Epidemiology It typically presents in younger women with an average age of onset at around 45 years.  Risk factors human papillomavirus (HPV) 1...

Cervical polyp

Cervical polyps are polypoid growths projecting into the cervical canal. They can be one of the most common causes of intermenstrual vaginal bleeding.  Epidemiology Most patients are perimenopausal at the time of presentation, especially in the 5th decade of life. They are the most common mass...

Paraovarian cyst

Paraovarian cysts are remnants of Wolffian duct in the mesosalpinx that do not arise from the ovary. They account for ~10-20% of adnexal masses 3,4. Terminology Paraovarian cysts are also sometimes referred to as paratubal cysts or hydatid cysts of Morgagni 14. Epidemiology They typically oc...

Ovarian fibroma

Ovarian fibromas are a benign ovarian tumor of sex cord/stromal origin. Although fibromas account for ~4% of all ovarian neoplasms, they are the most common sex cord ovarian tumor. Epidemiology Fibromas occur at all ages but are most frequently seen in middle-aged women. Clinical presentation...


Hydrosalpinx is a descriptive term and refers to a fluid-filled dilatation of the fallopian tube. If the fluid is infected, i.e. pus, then it is a pyosalpinx, if bloody, then hematosalpinx. Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic or may present with pelvic pain or infertility. Path...

Paraovarian cystadenoma

Paraovarian cystadenoma is a usually benign adnexal tumor that does not arise from the ovary. There is an association with Von Hippel Lindau syndrome. Radiographic features Pelvic ultrasound typically seen as a unilateral cystic adnexal lesion may be a simple cyst, or contain solid nodular a...

Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

Mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary is at the benign end of the spectrum of mucin-containing epithelial ovarian tumors. Epidemiology The estimated peak incidence is at around 30-50 years of age.  They comprise approximately 80% of mucinous ovarian tumors and 20-25% of all benign ovarian tumors....

Ovarian follicular cyst

An ovarian follicular cyst is type of simple physiological ovarian cyst. Terminology The terms "ovarian cyst" and "ovarian follilcular cyst" are often used interchangeably. These two terms describe lesions >3 cm, and it is important to differentiate them from an "ovarian follicle" which is <3 ...


Pyosalpinx refers to a Fallopian tube that is filled, and often distended, with pus. Pathology A pyosalpinx often tends to be a complication of background pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Inflammation results in tubal and peritubal adhesions with superimposed obstruction of the fimbrial end....


A hematosalpinx refers to intraluminal blood within the Fallopian tube (often dilated).  Pathology Causes include tubal ectopic pregnancy: common cause 1 endometriosis: common cause 5 tubal carcinoma pelvic inflammatory disease fallopian tube torsion retrograde menstruation uterine cerv...

Ovarian serous cystadenoma

Ovarian serous cystadenomas are a type of benign ovarian epithelial tumor at the benign end of the spectrum of ovarian serous tumors. Terminology Serous ovarian tumors are traditionally described with a "cyst-" prefix because of their primarily cystic composition, e.g. cystadenoma, cystadenoca...

Germ cell tumors of the ovary

Germ cell tumors of the ovary account for approximately 15-20% of all ovarian tumors. In children and adolescents, up to 60% of ovarian tumors can be of germ cell origin. They include: ovarian teratoma(s): commonest primary benign tumor of ovary and commonest germ cell tumor: mature (cystic) ...

Ovarian fibrothecoma

Ovarian fibrothecomas comprise tumors in the spectrum of ovarian sex cord / stromal tumors where there are components of both an ovarian fibroma and an ovarian thecoma.  Epidemiology Most occur in adult women, with ~66% in postmenopausal women. Although they account for ~1% of all ovarian tumo...

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