Items tagged “gynecology”

15 results found
Article

Gynaecological ultrasound set-pieces

The clinical history will nearly always lead to a short differential or the answer. Show off to the examiner that you have a structured approach to reporting and managing the patient. Structured approach uterus: size, version and shape (normal or variant which you should elaborate on and say w...
Article

Acute pelvic pain

Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting symptom to the emergency department and radiologist. Pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and endovaginal approaches is usually the first line imaging modality. Clinical presentation non-cyclic pain pain of <3 months duration Patients also often pres...
Article

Ruptured ovarian cyst

Ruptured ovarian cysts are one of the most common causes of acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women. The sonographic appearance depends on whether a simple or hemorrhagic ovarian cyst ruptures, and whether the cyst has completely collapsed. The most important differential consideration is a rup...
Article

Haemorrhagic ovarian cyst

Haemorrhagic ovarian cysts (HOCs) usually result from haemorrhage into a corpus luteum or other functional cyst. Radiographic features are variable depending on the age of the haemorrhage. They typically resolve within eight weeks.  Clinical presentation Patients may present with sudden-onset ...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a broad term that encompasses a spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper female genital tract, resulting in a spectrum of abnormalities.  Epidemiology The highest incidence is seen among sexually active women in their teens, with 75% cases being ...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Clinical presentation Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may sometimes be abse...
Article

Intra-uterine contraceptive device

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinnning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing  implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metalli...
Article

IUCD related uterine perforation

IUCD related uterine perforations are one of the causes of uterine perforation. It is rare, but a serious complication of an IUCD insertion, and is often clinically silent.  Epidemiology The incidence rate is reported at ~2 in 1000 2. Clinical presentation Perforation at the time of insertio...
Article

Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas (uterine fibroids) are benign tumours of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. There are various medical, surgical and interventional treatment options. Epid...
Article

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation treatment (ovarian induction therapy) for in vitro fertilisation. Rarely, it may also occur as a spontaneous event in pregnancy (see spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation later in the article). The clinical syn...
Article

Ovarian tumours

Ovarian tumours are relatively common and account for ~6% of female malignancies. This article focuses on the general classification of ovarian tumours. For specific features, refer to subarticles. Pathology Subtypes Primary ovarian tumours Surface epithelial stromal ovarian tumours (60-70%)...
Article

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a common and clinically important problem in women of childbearing age. It is classically defined as the presence of functional endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and musculature 1. This is distinct from adenomyosis, in which endometrial tissue is confined ...
Article

Adenomyosis of the uterus

Adenomyosis of the uterus is a relatively common, benign uterine pathology. It is thought by many to be on the spectrum of endometriosis, with ectopic endometrial tissue in the myometrium. Adenomyosis may present with menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound and MRI are imaging modalities that m...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma

Endometrial carcinoma is generally considered the most common gynaecological malignancy 1,5. It frequently presents with vaginal bleeding and both ultrasound and pelvic MRI are useful modalities for evaluation. Epidemiology Incidence peaks at around the 6th decade, though 12% of cases present ...

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