Items tagged “heart”
84 results found
Cardiac blood pool scan
A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex, and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. Although generally when it is not specified it is assumed to refer to the systemic type. systemic hypertension...
Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)
The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV). Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection. Epidemiology Risk factors include: children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1 poverty, overcrowding Clinical presentation...
Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Recently the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) have changed guidelines to indicate that pressures above 130/80 mmHg will be considered hypertension, however the Europe...
Straight back syndrome
Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures. It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects (VSDs) and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterized by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria...
Published 23 Nov 2009
Acyanotic congenital heart disease
Acyanotic congenital heart disease comprises numerous etiologies, which can be divided into those with increased pulmonary vascularity (pulmonary plethora) and those with normal vascularity: increased pulmonary vascularity ventricular septal defect (VSD) atrial septal defect (ASD) atrioventr...
Published 10 Feb 2010
Right coronary artery
The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin The right coronary artery arises from its ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva, found between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction. C...
Primary cardiac tumors
Primary cardiac tumors are uncommon and comprise only a small minority of all tumors that involve the heart: most are mediastinal or lung tumors that extend through the pericardium and into the heart, or metastases 1. Epidemiology Primary cardiac tumors have an estimated autopsy prevalence of ...
Primary benign cardiac tumors
Primary benign cardiac tumors are much less common than secondary metastatic deposits. However, they are more likely when a cardiac mass is seen outside of the setting of terminal metastatic disease. Tumors include 1,2: cardiac myxoma most common in adults accounts for ~50% of all primary ben...
Primary malignant cardiac tumors
Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare and account for only ~25% of primary cardiac tumors, and only a small proportion of all malignant tumors which involve the heart: direct extension of adjacent tumors or metastatic deposits are far more common. Pathology Histological types include 1: ...
Cardiac myxoma (gross pathology)
Diagnosis not applicable
Published 29 Mar 2010
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm
A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm refers to abnormal dilatation of the sinus of valsalva and is a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms arise from one of the aortic sinuses. They are either congenital or acquired. Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being...
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 09 Jul 2010
Published 31 Jul 2010
Cor triatriatum is an extremely rare and serious congenital cardiac anomaly. Epidemiology It is thought to account for ~0.1% of all congenital cardiac anomalies 3,4. Clinical presentation Clinical presentation depends on: degree of stenosis in the fibromuscular membrane the integrity of ...
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 18 Sep 2010