Items tagged “iatrogenic”

14 results found
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Radiation-induced meningiomas

Radiation-induced meningiomas are more frequently multiple and have a very long latency period. Meningiomas are a much more frequent complication of radiation exposure compared to sarcomas or gliomas. Epidemiology The exact incidence of radiation-induced meningiomas is unknown; one study had a...
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Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of intravenously-administered contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; it is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complication...
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Osteoradionecrosis

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) refers to a severe delayed radiation-induced injury and is characterized by bone tissue necrosis and failure in healing. There is some overlap with the term radiation osteitis. Pathology Microvascular damage is thought to result in altered blood supply to the bone.  Th...
Article

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...
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Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...
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Radiation-induced glioma

Radiation-induced gliomas are a rare complication of cranial irradiation, occurring in less than 3% of cases 15 years post-treatment. Glioblastomas correspond to three-quarters of all radiation-induced gliomas.  The risk of developing a secondary CNS cancer following radiation exposure has been...
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Intestinal angioedema

Intestinal angioedema is edema into the submucosal space of the bowel wall following protein extravasation from "leaky" vessels. It can affect both the small and large bowel. Clinical presentation Patients often present with non-specific findings of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Patho...
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Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
Article

Barium peritonitis

Barium peritonitis is a rare complication of gastrointestinal barium studies, and occurs when there is gastrointestinal tract perforation and spillage of barium contrast agent into the peritoneal cavity resulting in peritonitis, granuloma and stone formation 1. Pathology Barium sulfate in the ...
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Infusothorax

Infusothorax (plural: infusothoraces), also known as a chemothorax, is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertently in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer ...
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Complications post optical colonoscopy

Complications post optical colonoscopy are most commonly assessed by CT if patients present with abdominal symptoms post colonoscopy. Complications include: bowel perforation (most common) pneumoperitoneum pneumoretroperitoneum pneumomediastinum pneumothorax lower gastrointestinal hemorrha...
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Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers are a potential long-term complication of radiotherapy to the chest.  Besides lung cancer, sarcomas (osteosarcomas are the most common arising from the irradiated bones, and malignant fibrous histiocytomas the most frequently arising from the soft tissues), breast...
Article

Catheter-associated mass

Catheter-associated mass, also known as catheter tip granuloma, is a relatively rare complication related to an intrathecal catheter. Terminology Although the term catheter tip granuloma is commonly found in the literature, some favor the more general term catheter-associated mass as they actu...
Article

Barolith

A barolith consists of inspissated barium sulfate associated with feces seen rarely, after barium studies for imaging the gastrointestinal tract. Since barium sulfate is insoluble, it can in rare cases precipitate in the bowel, sometimes becoming symptomatic with a significant delay (from few we...