Items tagged “iatrogenic”

13 results found

Radiation-induced meningiomas

Radiation-induced meningiomas (RIM) are more frequently multiple and have a very long latency period. Meningiomas are a much more frequent complication of radiation exposure compared to sarcomas or gliomas. Epidemiology The exact incidence of radiation-induced meningiomas is unknown; one study...

Contrast media extravasation

Contrast media extravasation (CMEV) refers to the leakage of contrast media from the normal intravascular compartment into surrounding soft tissues; It is a well-known complication of contrast-enhanced CT scanning. It can also occur in MRI studies, but the complications are rare given the low vo...


Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) refers to a severe delayed radiation-induced injury and is characterized by bone tissue necrosis and failure in healing. There is some overlap with the term radiation osteitis. Pathology Microvascular damage is thought to result in altered blood supply to the bone.  Th...

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis

Iodinated contrast-induced thyrotoxicosis is rare and may occur in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease and through complications of thyrotoxicosis (e.g. cardiac arrhythmia) may be fatal. Patients with a normal thyroid gland are unaffected.  Patients with existing thyrotoxicosis should no...

Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening complications inc...

Radiation-induced glioma

Radiation-induced gliomas are a rare complication of cranial irradiation, occurring in less than 3% of cases 15 years post treatment. Glioblastomas correspond to three-quarters of all radiation induced gliomas.  The risk of developing a secondary CNS cancer following radiation exposure has been...

Intestinal angioedema

Intestinal angioedema is edema into the submucosal space of the bowel wall following protein extravasation from "leaky" vessels. It can affect both the small and large bowel. Clinical presentation Patients often present with non-specific findings of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Patho...

Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...

Barium peritonitis

Barium peritonitis is a rare complication of gastrointestinal fluoroscopy, and occurs when there is gastrointestinal tract perforation and spillage of barium into the peritoneal cavity.  Pathology Barium in the peritoneal cavity is treated as a foreign body with resultant immune response that ...


Infusothorax is a complication of central venous catheter malposition where the catheter tip is located in the pleural space and the infusion of the fluid collects inadvertantly in the pleural space in the form of a pleural effusion. Longer term complications depend on the fluid being infused.

Complications post optical colonoscopy

Complications post optical colonoscopy are most commonly assessed by CT if patients present with abdominal symptoms post colonoscopy. Complications include: bowel perforation (most common) pneumoperitoneum pneumoretroperitoneum pneumomediastinum pneumothorax lower gastrointestinal hemorrha...

Radiation-induced lung cancer

Radiation-induced lung cancers have been reported as a rare late complication of radiation therapy in both post-operative breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma patients. These occur 5-10 years (or later) after treatment 1-4. There appears to be increased risk of lung cancer in these patients if the...

Catheter-associated mass

Catheter-associated mass, also known as catheter tip granuloma, is a relatively rare complication related to an intrathecal catheter. Terminology Although the term catheter tip granuloma is commonly found in the literature, some favour the more general term catheter-associated mass as they act...

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