Items tagged “illustrations”

25 results found
Article

Rotator cuff

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons, important in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint: supraspinatus: abduction infraspinatus: external rotation teres minor: external rotation subscapularis: internal rotation Other structures that stabilize the glenohumeral joint in...
Article

Muscles of the shoulder

Muscles of the shoulder can be subdivided into a variety of groups depending on origin, topography, function or innervation. The system used here groups muscles based on function and topography (which are closely related in the upper limb): Muscles of the shoulder girdle Muscles that have migr...
Article

Posterior cruciate ligament

The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments that stabilize the knee joint.  Gross anatomy The PCL attaches to the posterior intercondylar area and passes anterosuperiorly to insert into the lateral surface of the medial femoral condyle.  When the knee is in exte...
Article

Pectoralis major

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
Article

Deltoid muscle

The deltoid muscle (also known as deltoideus) is the largest of the shoulder muscles. The muscle is composed of three heads (clavicular, acromial and spinous), although electromyography suggests that there are at least seven control regions that could act independently 1. Summary origin: later...
Article

Biceps brachii

The biceps brachii muscle (also known simply as biceps) is a two-headed muscle in the anterior compartment of the arm that flexes at the elbow and supinates the forearm. Summary origin short head: coracoid process of the scapula long head: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula insertion: rad...
Article

Coracobrachialis

The coracobrachialis is one of the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. It sits beneath the biceps brachii, inserting via a flat tendon into the medial shaft of the humerus. origin: coracoid process of scapula insertion: via a flat tendon onto the midportion of the medial surf...
Article

Brachialis

The brachialis muscle (brachialis) is one of the three muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. It is only involved in flexion at the elbow and therefore the strongest flexor at the elbow, compared with the biceps brachii which is also involved in supination because of its insertion on th...
Article

Triceps brachii

The triceps brachii, which often referred to simply as the triceps is a three-headed muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm. Summary origin long head: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula medial head: posterior humerus, inferior to the radial groove, medial intermuscular septum late...
Article

Anconeus

The anconeus is a small muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm at the lateral aspect of the elbow. It has little functional significance but should be differentiated from the variably present anconeus epitrochlearis at the medial aspect of the elbow. Summary origin: lateral epicondyle ...
Article

Articularis cubiti

The articularis cubiti is a muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm: origin: posterior surface of the distal humerus insertion: posterior surface of the elbow joint capsule innervation: radial nerve action: tenses the posterior elbow joint capsule during elbow extension
Article

Pronator teres

Pronator teres is a two-headed flexor and pronator of the forearm, found superficially in the anterior compartment of the forearm. Summary origin humeral head: medial epicondyle of the humerus ulnar head: coronoid process of the ulna insertion: lateral surface of the middle-third radius ar...
Article

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) is a muscle found in the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. It does not pass through the carpal tunnel, but rather by itself in a small separate tunnel between the superficial and deep layers of the flexor retinaculum along the scaphoid and trapez...
Article

Palmaris longus

Palmaris longus (PL) is a superficial, weak flexor of the wrist located in the anterior compartment of the forearm. It is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand. Summary origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus insertion: palmar aponeurosis arterial supply: anterior ulnar recurrent artery ...
Article

Latissimus dorsi

Latissimus dorsi is one of the muscles that attaches the upper limb to the vertebral column. Summary origin ​spinous processes of T7-T12 and thoracolumbar fascia posterior third of the iliac crest 9th-12th ribs inferior angle of the scapula insertion: floor of the bicipital groove of the ...
Article

Levator scapulae

Levator scapulae is a muscle of the upper limb that connects the pectoral girdle to the cervical spine. Summary origin: C1-C4 transverse processes insertion: superior angle of the scapula innervation: direct branches from the C3-4 spinal nerves, and the dorsal scapular nerve (C5) arterial s...
Article

Pectoralis minor

The pectoralis minor muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region lying deep to and is completely covered by pectoralis major.  It is an important anatomical landmark in two senses: it divides the axillary artery into 3 parts it divides the axillary lymph nodes into levels Summary origin: ante...
Article

Serratus anterior

Serratus anterior arises from the anterolateral chest wall as eight interdigitations of muscle that run posteriorly around the chest wall, under the scapula to insert onto the medial scapula. It is considered one of the four muscles of the pectoral region, Summary origin: anterolateral ribs 1-...
Article

Subclavius muscle

The subclavius muscle is a small triangular muscle of the pectoral region which depresses the shoulder. Summary origin: 1st costochondral joint insertion: subclavian groove on the inferior aspect of the clavicle innervation: nerve to subclavius arterial supply: clavicular branch of the thor...
Article

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) is a muscle of the first layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. It is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand. Summary origin humeral head: medial epicondyle of the humerus ulnar head: medial border of olecranon and posterior border of ulna insertion: ...

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