Items tagged “infectious disease”

69 results found


Achalasia (primary achalasia) refers to a failure of organised oesophageal peristalsis with an impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), resulting in often marked dilatation of the oesophagus and food stasis. Obstruction of the distal oesophagus (often due to tumour) has been...

Acute unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Acute unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification.   Differential diagnosis The exhaustive list of all possible causes would be huge, but a useful framework includes: pus, i.e. infection bacterial pneumonia fungal pneumonia viral p...

Bell palsy

Bell palsy, also known as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, is characterised by rapid onset facial nerve paralysis, often with resolution in 6-8 weeks. As there are numerous causes of facial nerve palsy, many of which can be acute in onset, it is currently a diagnosis of exclusion supporte...

Fournier gangrene

Fournier gangrene is a necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 but is rarely seen in women. Other than age, predisp...

Herpes simplex encephalitis

Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotizing viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings.  Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus and pattern of involvement. They are 1: neonatal herpes encephalitis ...

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), also referred to as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is an atypical pulmonary infection and the most common opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Terminology Classically, PCP was the acronym for Pneumocystis car...

Advanced L2/3 discitis-osteomyelitis

 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 11 Nov 2008
71% complete


Leptomeningitis, which is more commonly referred to as meningitis, represents inflammation of the subarachnoid space (i.e. arachnoid mater and pia mater) caused by an infectious or noninfectious process. Causes Infective pyogenic meningitis elderly Streptococcus pneumoniae Listeria monocyt...

Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) U: usual interstitial pneumon...

Tree-in-bud sign (lung)

Tree-in-bud sign or pattern describes the CT appearance of multiple areas of centrilobular nodules with a linear branching pattern. Although initially described in patients with endobronchial tuberculosis, it is now recognised in a large number of conditions. Pathology Pathogenesis The tree-i...

Neonatal respiratory distress (causes)

Causes of neonatal distress can be broadly split into intrathoracic, extrathoracic and systemic: Intrathoracic Medical respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) meconium aspiration syndrome bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...

Tuberculosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are varied and depend in part whether the infection is primary or post-primary. The lungs are the most common site of primary infection by tuberculosis and are a major source of spread of the disease and of individual morbidity and mortality. A general d...

Tuberculous meningitis

Tuberculous meningitis is the most common presentation of intracranial tuberculosis, and usually refers to infection of the leptomeninges. Uncommonly tuberculosis can be limited to the pachymeninges (dura mater), it is called as tuberculous pachymeningitis and is discussed separately.  The rema...

Causes of perfusion defects on a VQ scan

There are several causes leading to a perfusion defect on a VQ scan with an acute pulmonary embolus being only one of them: Vascular causes acute pulmonary embolus previous pulmonary embolus (including fat embolism, thromboembolism, air embolism, tumour) vasculitides affecting the pulmonary ...

Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection

Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a type of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. It is relatively common and continues to pose significant therapeutic challenges. In addition, the role of MAC in pulmonary pathology remains controversial in many instances.  Epide...

Acute pyelonephritis

Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis parallels that of lower urinary tr...

Whipple disease

Whipple disease is a rare infectious multisystem disorder caused by the actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei. Epidemiology The incidence of Whipple disease is not truly known, one Swiss study estimated it at approximately 1 per 1.5 million per year 7. The peak age for presentation is in the fif...

CNS cryptococcosis

CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system with the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the most common fungal infection and second most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. For a general discussion of infection with this organi...


Dracunculiasis (also known as guinea worm disease) is a potentially disabling infection caused by Dracunculus medinensis (meaning "little worm from Medina"). Clinical presentation The radiologic finding of a calcified guinea worm is common in endemic areas.  In the vast majority of cases (one...

Cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria is a rare intracranial complication of a malarial infection. Epidemiology Cerebral malaria is mainly encountered in young children and adults living or travelling in malaria-endemic areas. It is estimated to occur in ~2% of patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum infection, ...

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