Items tagged “infectious disease”
73 results found
Achalasia (primary achalasia) is a failure of organised oesophageal peristalsis causing impaired relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, and resulting in food stasis and often marked dilatation of the oesophagus. Obstruction of the distal oesophagus from other non-functional aetiologies...
Acute unilateral airspace opacification (differential)
Acute unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. Differential diagnosis The exhaustive list of all possible causes would be huge, but a useful framework includes: pus, i.e. infection bacterial pneumonia fungal pneumonia viral p...
Bell palsy, also known as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, is characterised by rapid onset facial nerve paralysis, often with resolution in 6-8 weeks. As there are numerous causes of facial nerve palsy, many acute in onset, it is currently a diagnosis of exclusion supported by a typical p...
Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)
Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis granulomatosis with polyangi...
Fournier gangrene is a necrotising fasciitis of the perineum. It is a true urological emergency due to the high mortality rate but fortunately, the condition is rare. Epidemiology Fournier gangrene is typically seen in diabetic men aged 50-70 years but rarely in women. Other than age, predispo...
Herpes simplex encephalitis
Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotising viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings. Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus, and pattern of involvement. They are 1: neonatal herpes encephalitis ...
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), also referred to as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), is an atypical pulmonary infection and the most common opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Terminology Classically, PCP was the acronym for Pneumocystis car...
Advanced L2/3 discitis-osteomyelitis
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 11 Nov 2008
Leptomeningitis, which is more commonly referred to as meningitis, represents inflammation of the subarachnoid space (i.e. arachnoid mater and pia mater) caused by an infectious or noninfectious process. Causes Infective pyogenic meningitis elderly Streptococcus pneumoniae Listeria monocyt...
Peripheral lung opacities (mnemonic)
Mnemonics for peripheral lung opacities seen on chest x-ray or CT are useful to remember differentials. Examples include: AEIOU SIC CUE Mnemonics AEIOU A: alveolar sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia I: infarction O: organizing pneumonia (including COP) U: usual interstitial pneumonit...
Tree-in-bud sign (lung)
Tree-in-bud sign or pattern describes the CT appearance of multiple areas of centrilobular nodules with a linear branching pattern. Although initially described in patients with endobronchial tuberculosis, it is now recognised in a large number of conditions. Pathology Pathogenesis The tree-i...
Neonatal respiratory distress (causes)
Causes of neonatal distress can be broadly split into intrathoracic, extrathoracic and systemic: Intrathoracic Medical respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) meconium aspiration syndrome bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)...
Tuberculosis (pulmonary manifestations)
Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are varied and depend in part whether the infection is primary or post-primary. The lungs are the most common site of primary infection by tuberculosis and are a major source of spread of the disease and of individual morbidity and mortality. A general d...
Tuberculous meningitis is the most common presentation of intracranial tuberculosis, and usually refers to infection of the leptomeninges. Uncommonly tuberculosis can be limited to the pachymeninges (dura mater), it is called as tuberculous pachymeningitis and is discussed separately. The rema...
Bulging fissure sign
The bulging fissure sign refers to lobar consolidation where the affected portion of the lung is expanded causing displacement of the adjacent fissure. Any type of pneumonia or space-occupying process can lead to bulging (sagging) fissure sign. Classically, it has been described in upper right l...
Causes of perfusion defects on a VQ scan
There are several causes leading to a perfusion defect on a VQ scan with an acute pulmonary embolus being only one of them: Vascular causes acute pulmonary embolus previous pulmonary embolus (including fat embolism, thromboembolism, air embolism, tumour) vasculitides affecting the pulmonary ...
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a type of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. It is relatively common and continues to pose significant therapeutic challenges. In addition, the role of MAC in pulmonary pathology remains controversial in many instances. Epide...
Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis and parenchyma most commonly seen in young women. It remains common and continues to have significant morbidity in certain groups of patients. Epidemiology The incidence of acute pyelonephritis parallels that of lower urinary tr...
Whipple disease is a rare infectious multisystem disorder caused by the actinobacteria Tropheryma whipplei. Epidemiology The incidence of Whipple disease is not truly known, one Swiss study estimated it at approximately 1 per 1.5 million per year 7. The peak age for presentation is in the fif...
CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system with the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the most common fungal infection and second most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. For a general discussion of infection with this organi...