Items tagged “infectiousdisease”

134 results found
Article

Acute mastoiditis

Acute mastoiditis is largely a disease of childhood and occurs when acute otitis media extends into the mastoid air cells.  Terminology When mastoiditis and acute otitis media occur concurrently, sometimes the term acute otomastoiditis is used.  When mucoperiosteal involvement evolves into bo...
Article

Air crescent sign (lung)

An air crescent sign describes the crescent of air that can be seen in invasive aspergillosis, semi-invasive aspergillosis or other processes that cause pulmonary necrosis. It usually heralds recovery and is the result of increased granulocyte activity. In angioinvasive fungal infection, the no...
Article

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (mnemonic)

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. A useful mnemonic for the American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society (ATS-ERS) classification of IIPs is: All Idiopathic Chronic Lung Disease aRe Nonspecifically Patterned The mnemoni...
Article

Bat wing opacities (lungs)

Bat's wing or butterfly pulmonary opacities refer to a pattern of bilateral perihilar shadowing. It is classically described on a frontal chest radiograph but can also refer to appearances on chest CT 3-4. Differential diagnosis Bat's wing pulmonary opacities can be caused by: pulmonary oedem...
Article

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic bilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnosis for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic bilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: inflammatory sarcoidosis Wegener's granulomatosis eo...
Article

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification (differential)

Chronic unilateral airspace opacification is a subset of the differential diagnoses for airspace opacification. An exhaustive list of all possible causes of chronic unilateral airspace opacities is long, but a useful framework is as follows: neoplastic post obstructive lymphoma lymphocytic ...
Article

Eosinophilic lung disease

Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogenous group of disorders that are characterised by excess infiltration of the eosinophils within the lung interstitium and alveoli and are broadly divided into three main groups 1: idiopathic: unknown causes secondary: known causes eosinophilic vasculitis...
Article

Ground glass opacification

Ground glass opacification/opacity (GGO) is a descriptive term referring to an area of increased attenuation in the lung on computed tomography (CT) with preserved bronchial and vascular markings. It is a non-specific sign with a wide aetiology including infection, chronic interstitial disease a...
Article

Varicella pneumonia

Varicella pneumonia is a type of viral pneumonia. It is a common cause of multiple small round calcific lung lesions. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) most commonly causes self-limited benign disease (chickenpox) in children. However, in adults it tends to cause significant complications such as VZV...
Article

Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a relatively common condition resulting from insufficient production of surfactant that occurs in preterm neonates.  On imaging, the condition generally presents as bilateral and relatively symmetric diffuse ground glass lungs with low volumes and a bell-s...
Article

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are diffuse interstitial lung diseases of unknown cause. They are characterized by cellular infiltration of the interstitial compartment of the lung with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Classification For many years many attempts have bee...
Article

Septal lines in lung

Septal lines, also known as Kerley lines, are seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent. This may be because of lymphatic engorgement or oedema of the connective tissues of the interlobular septa. They usually occur when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure re...
Article

Lung abscess

A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus within the lung. They are often complicated to manage and difficult to treat and, in some cases, may be life threatening. Epidemiology As a result of the widespread availability of antibiotics, the incidence of lung abscesses has dramatically...
Article

Miliary opacities

The term miliary opacities refers to innumerable, small 1-4 mm pulmonary nodules scattered throughout the lungs. It is useful to divide these patients into those who are febrile and those who are not. Additionally, some miliary opacities are very dense, narrowing the differential - see multiple...
Article

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastomas are tumours of neuroblastic origin corresponding to the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancies and the third commonest childhood tumours after leukaemia and brain malignancies. It accounts for ~15% of childhood cancer deaths. Epidemiology The tumours typically occ...
Article

Otomastoiditis

Otomastoiditis, or more simply inflammation of the mastoid air cells, can be divided into two distinct entities: acute otomastoiditis: usually due to bacterial infection chronic otomastoiditis: usually due to Eustachian tube dysfunction
Article

Pulmonary sequestration

Pulmonary sequestration, also called accessory lung, refers to the aberrant formation of segmental lung tissue that has no connection with the bronchial tree or pulmonary arteries. It is a bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM). There are two types: intralobar sequestration (ILS) extral...
Article

Hepatic abscess

Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localised collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic or fungal agents.  Epidemiology The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affec...
Article

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities

Reverse bat wing pulmonary opacities refer to peripheral opacities of the lungs, sparing the perihilar region. It is a relatively unusual appearance with a relatively narrow differential: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia cryptogenic organising pneumonia, formerly bronchiolitis obliterans with or...
Article

Transient tachypnoea of the newborn

Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN), also known as retained fetal fluid or wet lung disease, presents in the neonate as tachypnoea for the first few hours of life, lasting up to one day. The tachypnoea resolves by two days.  Pathology amniotic fluid is expressed from the lungs during vag...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.