Items tagged “kidney”

326 results found
Article

Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumours with perivascular epitheloid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascu...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak 1 simple cy...
Article

Horseshoe kidney

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Epidemiology Horseshoe kidneys are found in approximate...
Article

Medullary sponge kidney

Medullary sponge kidney is a sporadic condition where the medullary and papillary portions of the collecting ducts are dysplastic, and dilated and in most cases develop medullary nephrocalcinosis.  Epidemiology The incidence of medullary sponge kidney is estimated at ≈1:5000. Clinical present...
Article

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable paediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slight...
Article

Nephrocalcinosis

Nephrocalcinosis, previous known as Anderson-Carr kidney or Albright's calcinosis, refers to the deposition of calcium salts in the parenchyma of the kidney. It is divided into several types, with differing aetiologies, based on the distribution: medullary nephrocalcinosis: 95% cortical nephro...
Article

Renal oncocytoma

Renal oncocytoma is a relatively benign renal tumour. The main clinical importance of this lesion is the difficulty in pre-operatively distinguishing it from renal cell carcinomas, as epidemiology, presentation, imaging and even histology can be very similar.  Epidemiology Renal oncocytomas ac...
Article

AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 3-4 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
Article

Hypertrophied column of Bertin

Columns of Bertin represent the extension of renal cortical tissue which separates the pyramids, and as such are normal structures. They become of radiographic importance when they are unusually enlarged and may be mistaken for a renal mass (renal pseudotumour). Nomenclature of such enlarged co...
Article

Vesicoureteric reflux (grading)

Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grading divides vesicoureteric reflux according to the height of reflux up the ureters and degree of dilatation of the ureters: grade 1: reflux limited to the ureter grade 2: reflux up to the renal pelvis grade 3: mild dilatation of ureter and pelvicalyceal system ...
Article

Wilms tumour (staging)

Wilms' tumour staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumour. Where there is invasion or metastasises, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumour, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II loc...
Case

Lobar nephronia

 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 15 May 2008
65% complete
CT
Article

Renal cell carcinoma (TNM staging)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: ltumour confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 cm T2: l...
Article

Multilocular cystic renal tumours

Multilocular cystic renal tumours (MCRT) are rare benign renal neoplasms occurring in a bimodal age distribution, involving young children and adults in the 4th and 5th decades. For logical reasons, this article will discuss together the two ends of the spectrum of this disease, cystic partiall...
Article

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is one of many paediatric cystic renal diseases. On imaging, it usually presents on ultrasound with enlarged echogenic kidneys with multiple small cysts. Liver involvement with coarse echotexture, biliary tract cystic changes, and portal hyp...
Case

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 17 Dec 2008
74% complete
MRI
Case

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPCKD)

ADPCKD
 Diagnosis certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 17 Dec 2008
71% complete
CT
Article

Duplex collecting system

A duplex collecting system, or duplicated collecting system, is one of the most common congenital renal tract abnormalities. It is characterised by an incomplete fusion of upper and lower pole moieties resulting in a variety of complete or incomplete duplications of the collecting system. While ...
Case

Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction

PUJ Obtruction
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Michael Sargent
Published 05 Apr 2009
61% complete
MRI
Article

Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...

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